A tag is a keyword or label that categorizes your question with other, similar questions. Using the right tags makes it easier for others to find and answer your question.

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the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphe…
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a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inpu…
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an asymmetric (e.g. public-key) cryptosystem, based on modular exponentiation with big exponents and modulus. RSA can be used both for signature and encryption.
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a symmetrical block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes of 128, 192 or 256 bits.
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an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. This way the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communicati…
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Analysis of individual security aspects of a cipher or algorithm, not the security of a cipher or algorithm in general (which would lean towards “algorithm-design”).
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algebraic-geometric structures with applications in cryptography. Such a curve consists of the set of solutions to a cubic equation over a finite field equipped with a group operat…
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Algorithms and protocols for creating signatures to documents, and verifying such signatures. These are normally asymmetric, for symmetric signatures see [mac].
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an encryption algorithm which encrypts fixed-size blocks of plaintext to same-sized blocks of ciphertext. For good ciphers every bit of the ciphertext block depends on every bit of t…
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Design of cryptographic protocols, i.e. ways of using algorithms (primitives) to achieve one or more security goals like integrity, confidentiality, authenticity (maybe together with non-security-rela…
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Design of cryptographic primitives (algorithms), like block ciphers, stream ciphers, random-number generators, hash functions, MACs, key exchanges, public-key encryption or signature schemes. Also tag…
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an anonymous, non-authenticated key-agreement protocol.
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usually secret information used as input to various kinds of cryptographic algorithms, like encryption, signature, MAC, to select the concrete transformation done by the algorithm.
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successfully validating that an entity you are communicating with is actually who they claim to be. The entity typically demonstrates who they are by showing they possess a secret th…
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creation of (real or pseudo) random numbers (or bits).
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Symmetric cryptosystems assume two communicating entities share a pre-established secret key.
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Cryptosystems which support computation on encrypted data. They might be partially homomorphic (support for one operation such as + or *) or they might be fully homomorphic (any sequence of + and *).
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A primitive or protocol with provable security is accompanied by a mathematical proof that shows how to reduce the security claims about the protocol to a set of assumptions.
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a request to be provided with a source from documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures. Open ended literatu…
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a method for constructing a message authentication code based on a cryptographic hash function.
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the process of taking it from its mathematical or algorithmic description and producing a working version, often in computer software or hardware. This tag should …
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(or message authentication code), a short piece of information used to authenticate a message, and the algorithm to create and check such information, using a secret key.
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SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and its successor TLS (Transport Layer Security) are protocols which provide communication security (privacy and integrity) for a bidirectional data channel.
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secret keys which human beings can memorize.
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Difficulty of finding two different inputs that hash to the same value
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Key exchange protocols allow two parties to produce a secret session key over a public channel.
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In cryptography, a key derivation function (or KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key or other known information such as a password or passphrase using a pseudo-…
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an encryption algorithm which encrypts arbitrary length plaintext, using a key. Some stream ciphers generate a keystream from only the key, which is then XOR-combined with the plain…
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Combination of encryption and authentication in a way that ensures confidentiality and integrity.
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a method for encrypting large amounts of data with a block cipher that can only encrypt fixed length plaintexts. When used with an unpredictable initialization vector (I…
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ways of applying a block cipher to multi-block messages and enabling repeated use without changing the key.
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a United States Federal Government standard or FIPS for digital signatures. It was proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Aug…
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the number of times a generator of a group must be multiplied by itself to produce a known number. By choosing certain groups, the task of finding a discrete l…
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A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the p…
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a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value… the modulus.
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(or Data Encryption Standard), a (symmetric) block cipher using a 64 bit block size, with keys of size 56 bit, the standard US block cipher from 1976 to 2001.