Probably not safely and in the way you mean. The NULL IV is completely unsafe.
There are deterministic encryption schemes used for things like searchable encryption, de duplication/convergent cryptography, and key wrapping. They leak a lot of data about the underlying file you are encrypting. In general, they are not safe for generic use. Don't use them.
There are systems that don't use an IV, but use something else. An IV must be unpredictable and unique. As such you must send a fresh one with every message. A nonce, short for number used once, has the sole requirement that it only be used once. It can be predictable. Both OCB and Counter Mode require only a nonce. You could, for example, keep a counter on both ends along with the key and increment it every time to derive your nonces.
However, great care must be taken to ensure you don't reuse a nonce (i.e. if your counters get out of sync or something). In practice, it's way easier to just prepend the cleartext random nonce/IV to the front of the cipher-text and send it. Why exactly in your case is this not possible? Are your cipher text's limited in length?