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I recently began using PGP desktop and found several options for my encryption capabilities. Which of these (AES, Cast, Triple DES, TwoFish, IDEA) is the most recent, firstly, secondly may the NSA not have the keys to decrypt? Are there any encryption protocols not listed that are perhaps safer to use?

After reading that Outlook Email was forcibly(?) compromised, are there any secure email sites left in the cyber world that anyone can recommend?

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I'd avoid the old ones (Cast, 3DES, IDEA), and prefer AES or TwoFish. But for all of them, it's unlikely that the strength of symmetric encryption is the weakest point of your system. Spend your time creating a secure end-point and being careful about where you get public keys, rather than worrying about the strength of symmetric ciphers. –  CodesInChaos Oct 14 '13 at 8:41
Regarding email services, you could always host your own communication channel, whether it be an email server, IRC server, or whatever. But that turns into a trust issue with everyone you allow to connect to it or through it - plus, you may or may not know if you can trust the software. What exactly are you looking to protect against? –  John Deters Oct 16 '13 at 17:42
Ok, that makes sense to me, however, as someone with absolutely No experience with encryption, are you saying that the 'wrong' source can install malware on my computer with their public key- or something of the kind? Or perhaps after accepting such a public key can it makes my master key vulnerable to penetration? Forgive my ignorance, can you perhaps elaborate warning? Again, thanks in advance, your advice is Much appreciated. –  Not Free Anymore I see Oct 17 '13 at 3:30
@John- Great idea, thank you. I read this article- propublica.org/article/why-we-published-the-decryption-story -and was extremely disheartened. Clearly all but the smallest fraction (and possibly not even those) can even dream of keeping the EnEsAy from side stepping the Constitutional rights we US citizens are supposed to be granted and reading everything we say digitally -and Know that what I encrypt is private- I am not one of those people. I simply want the best chance given the tools at my disposal to speak privately.I am not nefarious, just a person desirous of Privacy,that's all. –  Not Free Anymore I see Oct 17 '13 at 3:36
My comment was simply that you need to trust everyone you permit to access your service, or they can grant the access that might allow someone else to enter. Even so, many services still have unknown vulnerabilities that might permit attack. –  John Deters Oct 17 '13 at 15:45
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