The answer is yes, non-US ciphers exist and are in fact very popular.
Actually, some who are looking for alternatives, opt for non-NSA/NIST ciphers, for instance Salsa/ChaCha from DJB (who is US citizen).
A lot of ciphers have been developed in EU and Japan.
China definitely has developed ciphers for its own use, just like many other countries.
But long detailed response:
Why USA is big on cryptography?
USA represent large amount the world market for high tech products and know-how, as well as representing significant chunk of high-tech jobs. In addition US has quite few of the best technical universities (all of the top 5). Already from this it would be easy to expect that a lot of research on all areas of high-tech to take place in USA. Including, of course cryptography.
People from USA have produced many of the most popular cryptographic algorithms. One good example is SHA-1/2 families, designed by NSA. Those are the widest used hash algorithms today.
It is expected that where USA has lead is the cryptographic know-how and analysis skills outside public information (i.e. what NSA knows but others don't).
USA has many classified ciphers and other cryptographic algorithms in use which are not known outside the USA, for some see NSA Suite A Cryptography. The algorithms include at least: MEDLEY, SHILLELAGH, BATON, SAVILLE, WALBURN, JOSEKI-1 (according to that Wikipedia article). Non-suite A algorithms include e.g. SKIPJACK, FASTHASH, JUNIPER.
However, to be the latest NIST approved hash family, SHA-3 (Keccak) as well as AES cipher have been mostly done by european cryptographers. Most of their inventors are Belgian, with Italy involved in Keccak. It was USA (NIST) that held the competition.
Thus, I would say that actually much of work inventing ciphers in academic world has moved elsewhere already. In fact, in many cases things are international co-operation, with people from US and abroad.
Validation and verification of correctness of cryptography
Where USA has been strong lately in cryptography is at least validating correctness of the implementation. All around the world, FIPS 140-2 validation is recognized as one of the most important validations cryptographic module may get, and fairly many governments used to see it as and endorsement.
The recent NSA spying speculations hit credibility of USA and NIST pretty badly.
This has caused people to start looking elsewhere and to distrust things invented in USA, especially ones invented by NSA, for instance, some of the currently deployed ECC curves. The alternatives include algorithms from US, but from parties not afflicted with NSA and NIST, like Dan J. Bernstein.
For algorithms invented elsewhere that US and not endorsed by NIST, you may want to look at ECRYPT. There you may find for instance, Camellia (Japan), Rabbit (Denmark).
Iran and China
Cryptographic algorithms in Iran and China? First it is important to acknowledge that cryptography is restricted in both of these countries. This means that for outsider, it is not easy to know very much. The research and know-how is more concentrated on government than e.g. on EU.
SMS4 cipher has been used in WAPI (Chinese Standard for Wireless LANs).
For information on Iran, see the answer by Habib, which covers that area very well.