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Assuming that Elgamal is used as an encryption cipher, where lets say $p$ is 2048bit prime. Is it possible for an attacker to figure out $x$, a secret key, if any part of 2048 bits ciphertext and plaintext pair is known. Or the pattern of remaining ciphertext.

Would it be prevent if RSA is used instead ? (let's assume no padding is used for diffusion)

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Consider this: You send an email to a friend. You know the cipher and plain text, and also the public key. So the answer is no, unless I misunderstood part of your question. Cheers –  rath Feb 14 at 18:45

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