I'm looking for a historical overview for the change in cryptographic power, which I hereby define as
How far state-of-the-art cryptography is ahead of state-of-the-art cryptanalysis.
In other words, how secure was a message encrypted with the best available methods from the attackers of its day, up to and including today?
Was the Caesar cipher, when used by Caesar, more secure than the Vigenère cipher, when used by Napoleon? Was the Vigenère cipher in the 16th century easier or harder to break than AES is today? Could AES be broken today with less effort than it took to crack the Enigma code in WWII?
I realize this is a very broad question, and difficult to answer with certainty, but any concrete examples backed by references would be of great interest to me (such as, how commonly the Vigenère cipher was broken when it was in wide use).
(Please discount side-channel attacks such as "rubber-hose cryptanalysis".)