As per title, other than brute force, are there any attacks on Threefish-512 using only a single plaintext block? Are there any attacks like this in any other cipher?
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Wikipedia lists no singular known plaintext attack, only a boomerang attack, which also depends on multiple known plaintexts.
So given these sources, it would seem there is not a well known and effective attack on three fish 512 with only one plaintext block.
Generally speaking, given only an encryption of a single plaintext block it would be difficult to use cryptanalysis to break a cipher. Even block cipher modes of operation which are deprecated, such as ECB, will operate securely for single block-key encryptions.
The Known-Plaintext-Attack seems to utilize single blocks of plaintext in some situations. That wiki site lists its usage on a cipher used during WWII, so technically Yes, there do exist ciphers which have been susceptible to a single known plaintext block at some points in history. But for modern ciphers, No, it does not seem to be an effective means of attack