There is no AES-512; AES takes keys of 128, 192 or 256 bits.
When encrypting with a password, there are two steps: first the password is converted into a key for the symmetric encryption, then the encryption is applied. Brute force can be applied either on the password (enumerating all possible passwords until a match is found) or on the key itself (enumerating all possible keys until a match is found).
A 128-bit key is large enough to defeat brute force for long period of times. You can use a larger key for display purposes (larger figures impress managers, and some people apparently believe that key length correlates with manhood -- in the same way as big cars).
The same applies to a password with 128 bits of entropy -- which is a way of saying that there are 2128 possible passwords, and you chose one at random among them. You can lower the entropy requirements on the password by using a slow hashing process; roughly speaking, if the function which converts the password into a key has the cost of 220 elementary encryption operations (that's about one million, and will be done in a fraction of a second with a basic PC) then you can be content with 108 bits of password entropy.
If your passwords are random sequences of alphanumeric characters (uppercase letters, lowercase letters, digits), then 19 characters are enough (because you use 62 distinct signs, and 6219 is greater than 2108). More characters are useless. Note that "random" is an important word: I am certainly not talking about choosing the password with your head ! Human brains are definitely bad at randomness. Use a coin, dice, or a computer with
All of the above is about making sure that the message will not be decrypted within the next 10 years. A much harder problem is to also ensure that the message will be more or less easily decrypted in year 2022, but not before. I suggest entrusting the key to a notary, with instructions to reveal it at a specific future date.