As fgrieu points out, the number of states reached is at most $2^\ell-1$ and that is achieved only if the feedback polynomial is a primitive polynomial (and the initial state is not all
zero). If the feedback polynomial is irreducible but not primitive, then with
nonzero initial loading, the LFSR state will cycle through $N$ states, where $N$ is a
divisor of $2^\ell-1$ but not a divisor of $2^m-1$ for any $m$ that is itself a proper divisor
of $\ell$. For example, if the feedback polynomial is an irreducible but nonprimitive polynomial of degree $6$, then, depending on which polynomial is being considered, the
LFSR will cycle through $21$ states, or through $9$ states. The $63$ nonzero states
form $3$ cycles of $21$ states each, or $7$ cycles of $9$ states each. Depending on
the initial loading, the LFSR will cycle through one of these cycles (and the other
cycles will never occur).
For an arbitrary feedback polynomial, which could be reducible, that is,
factorable into a product of (not necessarily distinct) irreducible polynomials
(meaning something like $[f(x)]^2g(x)$ might be the factorization),
the answer is much messier and complicated to describe. Search for the
term period of a polynomial and read Lidl and Neiderriter's Finite
Fields or Chapter 6 of Berlekamp's Algebraic Coding Theory for some
of the details.