# Is this exponentation or bitwise XOR

v = g^x

I am unfamiliar with reading cryptography texts. Does this mean gx, or g ⊕ x?

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Exponentiation. ^ meaning XOR is something common in C-like languages, but not in Math AFAIK. –  mgibsonbr Jun 20 at 2:00

## migrated from security.stackexchange.comJun 20 at 10:39

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It depends on the context, but later in this paper, the author makes it clear that he is using it to mean exponentiation:

The one-way'' verifier-generator P() becomes a modular exponentiation in GF(n):

P(x) = g^x

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In SRP, v = g^x means $v = g^x \mod p$, i.e. exponentiation modulo a large prime $p$.