Design of cryptographic primitives (algorithms), like block ciphers, stream ciphers, random-number generators, hash functions, MACs, key exchanges, public-key encryption or signature schemes. Also tag with the relevant type of primitive. If you ask about a known existing algorithm, also tag with its ...

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1answer
101 views

How to find roots of equation $f(x)=0 \pmod p $, where $p$ is prime number?

$f(x)$is any nth degree equation $n>0$, how to find roots of $f(x)$ over prime modulo.
0
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0answers
55 views

How do substution-permutation networks work? [duplicate]

I understand what is going on in higher level. But I don't understand what's really going on in page 3 and 4 of this slide. Specifically, How $S_0$ and $S_1$ is used? What goes in what goes out? ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

How does RIPEMD160 pad the message?

For RIPEMD hashing algorithm on hardware I am not exactly getting how padding works So as per my understanding padding will work like explained below: For ripemd 160 message should be multiple of ...
5
votes
2answers
162 views

Advantages of making streamcipher stream depend on plaintext?

Most descriptions that explain how streamciphers work (like the one on Wikipedia), tend to describe a model that boils down to a simple “$ciphertext = plaintext \oplus stream$”, where the stream is ...
4
votes
2answers
117 views

Is there such a thing as a hash function with a fixed size input?

That seems like it would be a useful primitive. Using it in place of a block cipher in the Merkle–Damgård construction would give a variable-length hash, maybe without the tricky business with related ...
0
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3answers
122 views

How to convert RSA public keys to one key to use for text hashing?

I've recently asked a question about RSA encryption. One of the things that I don't understand is the usage of two public keys. In the example on Wikipedia, a message is encrypted like: ...
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1answer
55 views

How much information is revealed?

Let Alice pick $v_{1}$,$m_{1}$$\in \mathbb{P}$ and Bob $v_{2}$,$m_{2}$$\in \mathbb{P}$. Now Alice computes $v_{1}$$^{m_{1}}$ and so Bob does $v_{2}$$^{m_{2}}$ Then Alice exchanges $v_{1}$$^{m_{1}}$ ...
5
votes
0answers
114 views

Homogenous and heterogeneous Unbalanced Feistel Networks

Unbalanced Feistel networks can be homogenous (F-function identical in each round), or they can be heterogeneous (F-function not always identical in each round). The advantage of heterogeneous UFNs ...
8
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4answers
632 views

Hashing a password before using for online accounts

I don't actually know what I'm talking about, so apologies if I get anything wrong. At the moment I have a password naming system for most of my online accounts that looks something like this: ...
5
votes
0answers
31 views

Understanding the definition of HGD

On the section 4.2, page 10, of the paper Order-Preserving Symmetric Encryption, the authors define two subroutines: the first one is called $HGD$ and the second one is $GetCoins$. I have doubts ...
10
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8answers
2k views

Are there any advantages in using proprietary encryption?

Proprietary software generally relies on the fact that in keeping the encryption algorithm private, it gets an extra layer of security implying "Security through Obscurity." Obviously this phrase has ...
7
votes
0answers
77 views

Default algorithm for scalar multiplication of elliptic curve points by the MIRACL Library

What is the default algorithm used by the MIRACL-Library [1] for elliptic curve cryptography systems to perform scalar-point multiplication with curves of Weierstrass form satisfying the equation : ...
1
vote
2answers
199 views

Is there an algorithm to hide text in another text, while preserving the meaning of the latter?

Is there a way to hide a text message $A$ inside another text $B$ using a cryptographic cipher/algorithm, while preserving the sense/meaning of $B$ and without anybody being able to notice there is a ...
1
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0answers
67 views

What can I do to improve my encyption method [closed]

I'm new to cryptography and I want to learn more. For me, the best way to learn about something that I have no experience with is to experiment and I've coded a very basic approach to a simple ...
0
votes
1answer
205 views

Self-Convergent Hashing

What is the name of an algorithm that hashes its result as an embed of larger set of data that results back to the hash? For instance where $f(x)$ is the hashed result and $x$ is the dataset, and ...
4
votes
0answers
83 views

Adding parameters to sponge's capacity

Is it safe to XOR parameters like domain, length of the message or block counter into sponge's capacity or that gives attacker control over capacity? For example NORX XORs domain into capacity. Does ...
3
votes
1answer
503 views

How to prove that a function is not pseudorandom?

I am currently enrolled in a cryptography course, which uses the book by Katz and Lindell. I'm struggling with the exercies which ask for proofs, like the following one: Let G(k) be a PRG with ...
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votes
1answer
117 views

What is the difference between key size and block size (for AES)

We are working on AES and want to develop a website which should provide an encryption facility but we are not understanding the difference between key and the block size. More appropriately what does ...
2
votes
1answer
132 views

Theoretical decryption of RSA

I am currently looking into RSA and have some questions. I am interested in theoretical answers, assuming there is infinite time for decryption. Is it necessary to work out the private-key exponent ...
3
votes
1answer
859 views

Feistel cipher vs Substitution-permutation network - number of rounds

So I have been doing for the last couple of days comparison between Feistel cipher and Substitution-permutation network. Now I can say I know a lot about them and their similarities and differences ...
6
votes
3answers
116 views

Homomorphic OR operations

Is there an encryption scheme that provides efficient homomorphic OR operations at the ciphertext space? Of course any fully homomorphic encryption can be used but I do not require or want additional ...
2
votes
1answer
152 views

Do any (non-hardware) RNGs exist which could be used to create an OTP for crypto purposes?

I've stumbled (jobwise) over a system where small messages (512 Bytes or less) are encrypted and decrypted using a simple XOR using a OTP. That OTP is created using a seed based on the individual user ...
4
votes
2answers
103 views

Is it okay to use an HMAC of the plaintext and a (possibly distinct) key as the IV for symmetric cryptography?

I was thinking of how to create an IV for a block cipher that doesn't require stored state, and I came up with the idea of using an HMAC of the (padded) plaintext and a (possibly distinct) key as the ...
0
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1answer
121 views

Combining a block cipher with a (pseudo) OTP

One of the drawbacks of OTP is that it can require an inconveniently long key. Besides that, it doesn’t provide data authentication. Therefore, I have been working on an algorithm idea, which I hope ...
8
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0answers
968 views

Elliptic curve cryptography related key attacks

This question is an extension of Families of public/private keys in elliptic curve cryptography As described above, bitcoin "type 2" deterministic wallets use a root private/public key pair, where ...
4
votes
2answers
525 views

Is Chaocipher a secure cipher under ciphertext-only attack?

Chaocipher was invented by John F. Byrne in 1919. The algorithm was recently revealed – see Moshe Rubin's Chaocipher Revealed, the Algorithm (PDF). While a known plaintext attack successfully finds ...
4
votes
3answers
850 views

Is there any area where AES-CBC cannot be used ? If so, why?

I would like to know the domains or specific applications where using AES-CBC is not advised due to any drawbacks like sequential encryption of AES-CBC ?
4
votes
1answer
75 views

Is my pin algorithm secure?

I'm a hobby programmer and very new to this field. I opened a bank account recently and got two pins. One for the girocard and the other for a creditcard. And I needed two more pins for the online ...
21
votes
5answers
12k views

What is the lowest level of mathematics required in order to understand how encryption algorithms work?

What mathematical fields of knowledge would be required in order to get a good understanding of encryption algorithms? Is it basic algebra, or is there a "higher education" mathematical field ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

Usefulness of Damgård–Jurik

I am trying to understand what are the benefits of using Damgård–Jurik over Paillier. I understand that expansion factor decreases as s increases. But isn't it the ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

What is the difference between LCG and Affine cipher?

What is the difference between LCG and Affine cipher? More specific: What are they used for, and what are the structural differences between them?
2
votes
1answer
107 views

Key Derivation Function (KDF): Can a key derived from KDF be considered as a secure key?

Consider a case where we have a master key MS that is used in pseudo-random function to generate a set of pseudo-random values. Then we use key derivation function to derive a key from each of ...
4
votes
1answer
199 views

How to adjust scrypt parameters for Moore's Law?

I have been examining the scrypt paper, and I noted the claims in table 1. For 10 random ASCII characters, the cost at that time for scrypt set to $(2^{14}, 8, 1)$ is estimated to be $175T/yr. ...
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votes
1answer
89 views

Is it interesting to design stream ciphers parametrized by a CSPRNG?

Would it be interesting to have new stream ciphers whose design is parametrized by a CSPRNG? I.e. to instantiate the stream cipher, you just have to select and plug in any CSPRNG of your choice.
6
votes
2answers
552 views

HMAC vs ECDSA for JWT

I will be implementing JSON web tokens into my website and have a question about implementing them. I have a choice of using two algorithms, HMAC-SHA256 and ECDSA-SHA256. I have used HMAC-SHA256 in ...
3
votes
0answers
60 views

Which precautions to protect against side-channel attacks on ARX ciphers?

In recent crypto there has been a trend to design ciphers using only the ARX set of instructions - i.e. additions (modulo $2^{32}$ or $2^{64}$), rotations (by a fixed constant) and XORs, examples ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

References for combining LFSRs with different lengths and taps?

I started learning streams ciphers with the use of LFSRs. Therefore, I tried to simulate what I am learning in a C sourcecode, which combines three registers and ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Diffie-Hellman using a different modulus on both sides

For Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange, the used modulus is the same throughout the process. Is it possible to use 2 different for both sides? For example, $A \gets M^{d_1} \pmod{n_1} $ $B\gets M^{d_2} ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

Cracking a hash which descends to a single value after repeated hashes

Assume I have a hash function (such as the one below) and a cipher, and I know that if I repeatedly hash any string over and over again, it will eventually descend to one unique value. Is there any ...
2
votes
3answers
883 views

random access stream cipher

Some time ago I was working in a pet project for a type of database engine. And I thought about securing the data in disk with encryption.. and since the main code was already developed.. I had a few ...
4
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0answers
129 views

Salary Negotiation Problem

Imagine Alice is applying for a new job. Alice has an idea of the minimum salary that she is willing to accept—let's call this value A. Bob, the hiring manager for ...
2
votes
3answers
190 views

One Time Pads and reuse of the decrypted message?

How is it insecure when Alice encrypts a message with a One-Time-Pad to Bob, and Bob then uses the decrypted message from Alice as the next One-Time-Pad? For example: Alice sends Bob a message ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Making Pascal Paillier' output absolute

Can we make subtraction result of cipher texts encrypted by Pascal Paillier absolute. Just like we use method Math.abs() in Java ? For example, if we subtract 0 from 1: 1-0 = 1, it is positive but 0-1 ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Symmetric-like cyphers with several steps

Are there any good symmetric-ish cyphers that involve three or more steps with independent key material for each step? Formally, there should be a function $K(s)$ that returns a tuple $(k_1,..,k_n)$ ...
0
votes
1answer
95 views

Galois Field ($2^{16}$) for encryption in place of $GF(2^8)$ in AES

AES algorithm is using $GF(2^8)$ Galois Field. What if we use $GF(2^{16})$ in place of $GF(2^8)$? Will this improve the algorithm or not?
2
votes
1answer
696 views

How to implement HMAC SHA-256

I am trying to figure out how the HMAC SHA-256 hashing algorithm works. I know that we have to use the following: H (K ^ opad)|| H ((K ^ ipad)|| text)). The ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

Can the round function $F$ in a Feistel Network be practically any non-invertible function?

This question might seem silly, but how true is the fact that the round function $F$ does not have to be invertible? I am curious to know this, because non-invertible functions can be very lossy, ...
5
votes
1answer
192 views

Why have round constants in hashes?

This may seem like basic crypto knowledge, but why do hash functions like SHA-2 and Whirlpool have round constants that are absorbed into their respective states? I can understand that in a cipher ...
3
votes
1answer
299 views

Has anyone heard of matrix-based “Russian Doll” encryption techniques?

I've been told that prime-number factoring is based on a "russian-doll" sequence of matrices, where a seed matrix of height Y and width X exists consisting of all zeros except for a single 1 at row Y ...
1
vote
1answer
117 views

AES-256 mode with per-block-key being a SHA-256 of SHA-256 of secret key, random public salt and block number. What's amiss?

Please criticize the (homebrew?) mode described below; to point out a single major defect/uncertainty or the link to (the analysis of) an equivalent construction is quite enough. Assume the ...