Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

3
votes
2answers
428 views

Timing attack on modular exponentiation

It is known that computing $a^x \bmod N$ takes $O(|x| + \mathrm{pop}(x))$ multiplications modulo $N$, where $|x|$ is the number of bits of $x$ and $\mathrm{pop}(x)$ is the number of $1$ bits (Hamming ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

What exactly is addition modulo $2^{32}$ in cryptography?

EDIT: I've been confusing this the whole time. What I've been wanting to say this whole time is addition modulo $2^{32}$ not addition modulo 32 as the question originally said. Thanks for pointing ...
6
votes
3answers
573 views

How to best obtain bit sequences from throwing normal dice?

Throwing normal dice, one can get sequences of digits in [0,5]. Which is the best procedure in practice to transform such sequences into bit sequences desired?
1
vote
0answers
283 views

computing inverses in truncated polynomial rings manually for NTRU encryption

Can someone explain how to find inverses in truncated polynomial rings manually (i.e. on pen and paper)? As an example from the tutorial: Example. Take $N=7$, $q=11$, $a=3+2X^2-3X^4+X^6$. The ...