# Tagged Questions

The avalanche effect is evident if, when an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit) the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip).

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### How to assess the strength of the avalanche effect for AES?

Within the scope of a study project I'm looking for an approach to assess the quality of AES encryption in practice. To do so, I modified the OpenSSL source code to be able to log metrics while ...
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### Determining the degree of freedom for a chi-squared test on a strict avalanche criterion matrix

I have read that the degree of freedom is calculated by subtracting 1 from the number of states a random variable can be in. I am performing a goodness of fit test on a 64*32 strict avalanche ...
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### Calculation of the avalanche effect coefficient

Given a strict avalanche criterion matrix/dependence matrix for a hash function,how do I calculate the avalanche coefficient for it. I want to calculate a single parameter(value) which represents the ...
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### Is there an avalanche effect using block cipher modes of operation?

I am studying cryptography and various block cipher modes of operation. Suppose I changed one bit in the last block of the message. Wouldn't that imply no change in all encrypted blocks except for ...
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### Any stream cipher with avalanche effect?

As far as I know, all stream ciphers work by generating a stream of pseudo random bytes, and XOR it with the plain text to get the cipher text. It has the property that one bit change in the cipher ...
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### Avalanche effect sample size

With a fixed key size – key has 128 bits, while block size is 8 byte – how do I calculate how many different keys and texts I have to test for an cryptanalytic statistics study? Differently worded: ...
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### How to calculate the avalanche effect in aes-256?

I am a beginner in cryptography. I'm testing AES-128 bit key, AES-256 bit key, and Camellia-256 bit key. I'm using AES-256, 9 character salt, CBC mode, PKCS #5 padding, and the ciphertext using ...
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### Does SHA-1 meet the strict avalanche criterion?

Does SHA-1 meet the strict avalanche criterion? I've been looking for a paper to cite on this, but haven't found one. It's something that seems to be easy to check (in "On the Design of S-Boxes", ...
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### What are some hashes that do not exhibit the avalanche effect?

I do not know much about cryptography. But, I'm in a situation where I need a hashing method that does not exhibit the avalanche effect. I tried Googling but couldn't find anything.
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### Construct block cipher from a smaller one with mixing function

I read about the AEZ encryption scheme as presented at the CAESAR competition. To me it seems like a construction of an arbitrary length block cipher from a smaller one. The key component is the ...
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### Understanding how SHA-512 achieves its design goals

The Wikipedia entry on SHA-2 contains a usable pseudocode recipe. In the hope of some deeper understanding, I implemented SHA-256 and SHA-512 from it. This was helpful, but I still don't think I have ...