A block cipher is an encryption algorithm which encrypts fixed-size blocks of plaintext to same-sized blocks of ciphertext. For good ciphers every bit of the ciphertext block depends on every bit of the plaintext block and every bit of the key.

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Why should CAST5 and 3DES not be used for encrypting files over 4GB?

On https://www.gnupg.org/faq/gnupg-faq.html#define_cast, it says that Like 3DES, its 64-bit block size means it should not be used to encrypt files larger than 4Gb in size… How and why does the ...
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55 views

Problem understanding the construction of block cipher distinguishers

I know a block cipher distinguisher is an algorithm which can predict with high probability whether a system is a random permutation or a block cipher by asking a few queries to the system. My ...
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2answers
296 views

salsa20 is invertible, useless in CTR mode?

I'm reading the salsa20 spec (sorry for the newbie question, i'm really a newbie here). Every paragraph ends with : "this operation is invertible", I suppose the whole salsa20 algorithm is. If I use ...
2
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1answer
349 views

How can AES be considered secure when encrypting large files?

Why is AES considered to be secure when encrypting large files since the algorithm is a block cipher? I mean, if the file is larger than the block size, the file will be broken down to fit the ...
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2answers
128 views

Which block cipher mode(s) is most appropriate in these applications?

I have a few questions I'm stuck on for a cryptography course I'm doing, any help would be much appreciated. The first application is for decryption on a multicore processor. I assume any of ECB, ...
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1answer
80 views

What does $\to$ mean in the following definition of a block cipher?

In the following picture $\kappa$ is the key length and $n$ is the block size. I understand that $\{0,1\}^\kappa$ means all possible combination of keys and $\{0,1\}^n$ means all possible combination ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Bit padding instead of PKCS#5 padding

Padding oracle attacks are a huge nuisance when using CBC mode encryption without authentication. Wouldn't all those padding oracle attacks be avoided if we'd just use bit padding instead? Or is does ...
3
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1answer
154 views

Is it possible to generate a secure permutation F over 32-bit integers even if F(0) … F(n) is public knowledge?

I'm currently interested in the problem of generating random-looking URLs from sequential database IDs, like how they do it in link shorteners. One way to do this is to encrypt the sequential database ...
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1answer
114 views

Why is Rijndael key length restricted?

Why is Rijndael restricted to key length in {128, 160, 192, 224, 256} bits (and not larger)? The algorithm looks to me like it would support an arbitrary-sized key (multiple of 32). The rounds ...
3
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1answer
162 views

Repeatable crypto

Is there a safe way to do crypto that will always produce the same result for a given input? My use case is transferring deltas of huge files, to a backup server. The backup server has no knowledge ...
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0answers
178 views

practically verifying block ciphers strength [closed]

How do we verify practically the strength of a block ciphers? Most of the security analysis of block ciphers is usually around theoretical analysis and proofs in some random oracle model etc. For ...
3
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2answers
232 views

Composition of block ciphers and 3DES

There is some intriguing things about DES and 3DES. Now, I know that DES is weak and 3DES was an attempt to construct a more secure block-cipher from a deprecated one. Having this in mind, what ...
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689 views

What are the advantages of CBC over ECB?

From this question I understand that, for a block cipher, using CBC is better than ECB. It seems that if one only has part of the cipher text, then decryption is difficult because the decryption ...
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4answers
2k views

Found a way to crack AES-128, what now?

I have just found a way to crack AES-128 in a reasonable time (1-2 days). How do I publish and prove this? I remember reading about lots of people who cracked DES and other ciphers but how did they ...
2
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1answer
86 views

Construct block cipher from a smaller one with mixing function

I read about the AEZ encryption scheme as presented at the CAESAR competition. To me it seems like a construction of an arbitrary length block cipher from a smaller one. The key component is the ...
4
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1answer
124 views

What's the consequence of having a short IV? Is one mode better in that case?

I've read lots about null-length IVs being bad for most modes. In a scenario where passing a 128-bit IV along with each message isn't feasible, how would generating the IV from a smaller passed-along ...
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4answers
15k views

What are the practical differences between 256-bit, 192-bit, and 128-bit AES encryption?

AES has several different variants: AES-128 AES-192 AES-256 But why would someone prefer use one over another?
2
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1answer
79 views

Variants of AES? [closed]

Would variants of AES provide the same level of security as AES, say by just replacing the S-box with another one, MDS matrix of Mixcolumn, etc.?
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552 views

Are there any secure commutative ciphers?

This answer lists two commutative cipher algorithms - Pohlig-Hellman and SRA. However, they don't appear to be too secure. My question is, here there any commutative ciphers out there that are secure ...
5
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2answers
276 views

Is my id obfuscation algorithm secure?

I'm designing an id obfuscation system. My system includes: Embedded chips, each chip has a unique 32-bit address (id). Server Insecure low-bandwidth unstable one-way channels from the chips to the ...
5
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1answer
244 views

Attacking a hardware AES implementation if it leaks the intermediate round states

Let's say that we have a hardware AES implementation that, on request, will encrypt or decrypt a 16-byte block of data in ECB mode using a fixed key, but refuses to reveal its fixed key. In other ...
7
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2answers
794 views

Where can I get information on how to implement AES?

I want to write AES from scratch without using the built in libraries of java. I know there are hundreds of AES programs (and websites) out there but I can't seem to find a site that gives me the ...
4
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2answers
165 views

Block-cipher based vs Hash based MAC

When it comes to MAC algorithms one can have many choices. CBC-MAC, CMAC, PMAC etc are some MAC algorithms that rely on block ciphers (ex AES) to generate a MAC. On the other hand HMAC is very popular ...
2
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1answer
353 views

Interleaving bytes to make an effectively larger block size

Will applying a 16 byte bit block cipher such as AES over a 256 byte block to in the following way result in a much stronger cipher:- Apply block cipher with first key digest to each 16 byte group. ...
2
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1answer
231 views

SHACAL in SHA-256

I was reading about hash functions, namely SHA, and I read that it is made of the Merkle-Damgard construction. And then the text said that the compression function used is based on the Davis-Meyer ...
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3answers
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AES256-CBC vs AES256-CTR in SSH [duplicate]

I used AES256-CBC to SSH to a remote server. Recently, it stopped working with the following message: ...
2
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1answer
103 views

How to only encrypt a subset of the plaintext

I was wondering if there is a smart way for a user to only encrypt a subset of a plaintext. I'll try to be more specific. Let's suppose the user U wants to use a special cipher such that given a ...
21
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1answer
14k views

What is the difference between PKCS#5 padding and PKCS#7 padding

One runtime platform provides an API that supplies PKCS#5 padding for block cipher modes such as ECB and CBC. These modes have been defined for the triple DES, AES and Blowfish block ciphers. The ...
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49 views

Process of dividing 168bit key into 56bit keys in TripleDES

I used TripleDES so many times but never thought about this. In TripleDES it requires 168bit ...
4
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1answer
81 views

Turning PRPs in PRGs with a counter

I am following the Coursera Cryptography I course and I have the following question, I am a bit perplexed by the statement, in week 2 lecture "What are block cyphers?" that a counter-mode PRF is a ...
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3answers
449 views

Modes of operation that allow padding oracle attacks

It seems to me that padding oracle attacks are mainly a concern for users of CBC mode encryption. Question: are any other modes of operation vulnerable to padding oracle attacks? And if so, why? ...
2
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1answer
107 views

How to find which padding method is used in Block cipher(AES) encyption?

I have a cipher text which is encrypted using AES128 Algorithm. I want to know the following things to decrypt the cipher. IV (Initialization Vector) Padding Method Encryption Key How do I find ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Galois field step in XEX mode

I'm reading through the XEX mode spec, and I want to make sure I've understood the $\alpha^j$ step correctly: $X = E_K(I) \oplus \alpha^j$ $C = E_K(M \oplus X) \oplus X$ where: $M$ is the ...
3
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3answers
209 views

Effective security of block cipher – equal the key size, or half the key size?

The Wikipedia “Key Size” article states: The security of an algorithm cannot exceed its key length (since any algorithm can be cracked by brute force), but it can be smaller. … … … Most ...
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1answer
443 views

What is the usual block cipher mode that goes with CTS

I am wondering: what is the most common, or most used, block cipher mode used that goes with CTS (CypherText Stealing)? Is it ebc or cbc?
2
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2answers
106 views

How is this affine function a pair wise independent permutation?

Can anybody explain how the below is true ? $I_n$ denotes the set of all n-bit strings, ${\{0,1\}}^n$. (..) Let $A$ be a finite field then the permutation $f_{(a,b)}(x) = a \cdot x + b$, ...
3
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1answer
137 views

Pseudorandom permutations on domains of arbitrary (i.e. not a power of 2) size

The Feistel cipher algorithm produces a pseudorandom permutation with domain size equal to $2^{2m}$ (for some $m \in \mathbb{Z}^+$). That is, a one-to-one function $\pi$ of the set $\{0, 1, 2, \dots, ...
4
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1answer
131 views

How do I decide what mode to use?

I'll be using AES from OpenSSL. I understand why I don't want to use ECB from reading pages like this Wikipedia article, which has a great example of what happens when you attempt to encrypt with ...
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1answer
103 views

Pseudo Random Generator with fixed Hamming Weight [closed]

I'm searching for way to generate secure pseudo random sequence with a fixed Hamming weight using a seed. I found below code but I need a seed to generate a sequence ... (and need know if is possible ...
2
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1answer
173 views

Message lengths with AES CTR mode?

Im working on my own AES implementation as a personal educational exercise (not for production use), and a book im using as a resource states: In the case of CTR, we are merely XORing the output ...
3
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2answers
87 views

How do I construct variable length input (VIL) in a block cipher mode?

I've just been skimming NIST's "Five Confidentiality Modes". I understand those block cipher modes are used to securely encrypt input longer that the block cipher length. However, the common block ...
2
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1answer
363 views

Break double encryption

Let $E_k$ : {0,1}$^l$ be a block cipher encryption function with block-size $l$ and key-length $n$. In class, we saw that a double encryption with two independent keys $E{}'_{k_1k_2}(x)$ = ...
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1answer
338 views

Can AES decrypt with a wrong key?

The title is asking the question in layman terms, but what I really mean to ask is this: Let $x \in \lbrace 0,1 \rbrace^{128}$ (an arbitrary input block) and let $K \in \lbrace 0, 1 \rbrace^{128}$ ...
3
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1answer
151 views

XOR with constant key in CBC mode

I have a hypothetical encryption scheme where somebody uses the one-time pad in CBC mode. That is, the block cipher is $E(k, m) :=k⊕m$, and that block cipher is used in CBC mode. Now, I am assuming ...
2
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1answer
122 views

Chosen Ciphertext Attack with a theoretical decryption machine

Say we have an encryption algorithm that encrypts data blocks of 128 bits size, and makes them cipher blocks $C = E(P)$ without chaining. Also assume there is a linearity rule for XOR: For every pair ...
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3answers
4k views

Which one of the Block Cipher modes is the best?

I have two questions regarding the Block Cipher Modes: Which one of the modes is considered the best? I know CBC has a problem of IV since the next block of the plain text is XORed with the result ...
2
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1answer
361 views

Precomputation attacks on RSA

Are precomputation attacks - such as outlined in RFC 3610 chapter 5 - possible on RSA PKCS#1 v1.5 signature generation? If yes, are such attacks taken into account when calculating the cryptographic ...
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105 views

Correct way to read a given permutation cipher?

In some literature I am reading – where they are explaining the permutation cipher – they have two examples, which encrypt a small block of text. But they seem to contradict each other: First ...
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1answer
141 views

What's the advantage of using OFB/CFB/CTR modes over a stream cipher

As far as I understand: The primary disadvantage associated with stream ciphers is the need for a random and unique key for each run in order to protect against reused-key attacks. OFB/CFB/CTR block ...
3
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1answer
195 views

Analyzing ECB's and CBC's resistence to a known-plaintext attack

I'm trying to analyze the strength of a block cipher with CBC mode or with ECB mode on the scenario of an exhaustive search attack with knowledge of pairs of plaintext – ciphertext (known plaintext ...