A block cipher is an encryption algorithm which encrypts fixed-size blocks of plaintext to same-sized blocks of ciphertext. For good ciphers every bit of the ciphertext block depends on every bit of the plaintext block and every bit of the key.

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What are the advantages of CBC over ECB?

From this question I understand that, for a block cipher, using CBC is better than ECB. It seems that if one only has part of the cipher text, then decryption is difficult because the decryption ...
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107 views

Which data to share in CTR mode?

Suppose I've got two clients $A$ and $B$. Client $A$ encrypts data in CTR (Counter) mode to get a ciphertext. What information will client $B$ have to receive from $A$ to decrypt the ciphertext? Just ...
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Pohlig-Hellman exponentiation block cipher

Let $G$ be a group of order $n$ and let $e,d$ be integers such that $ed\equiv 1 \pmod{n}$. Then the exponentiation maps $x \mapsto x^e$ and $y \mapsto y^d$ are inverse maps on $G$. These maps give us ...
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Block Cipher Mode Amicable to Fast Key Change/Rotation Like XOR?

I'm working with documents encrypted in long term storage. When a client requests the document, the document should be delivered encrypted under a distinct key (distinct from the long term storage ...
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Can you explain “weak keys” for DES?

A weak key for DES is a key $K$ such that $DES_{k_1}(DES_{k_2}(x))=x$ for all $x$. I don't get why are the 4 keys $k_1||k_2$: $1^{112}$, $0^{112}$, $0^{56}||1^{56}$, $1^{56}||0^{56}$ considered as ...
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Can you help me with this DES variant analysis?

I'm struggling with some DES variant that I got as an exercise (exercise taken from Katz-Lindell Ex5.14). The variant is as follows: The left half of the master key is used to derive all the ...
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414 views

Slow one-way pseudo-random permutation?

I'm looking for a slow one-way pseudo-random permutation; or in other words a block cipher $E_K: P\in\{0,1\}^b\mapsto C\in\{0,1\}^b$ with moderate block size $b\approx 64$ bits, wide key $K$, ...
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306 views

Can AES decrypt with a wrong key?

The title is asking the question in layman terms, but what I really mean to ask is this: Let $x \in \lbrace 0,1 \rbrace^{128}$ (an arbitrary input block) and let $K \in \lbrace 0, 1 \rbrace^{128}$ ...
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621 views

Block Cipher vs Stream Cipher in Web Application [closed]

I'm doing research about "Cryptographic attack methods in Web Application" so I have some questions to ask you guys: Block Cipher vs Stream Cipher, which is more common used in Web Application? How ...
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1answer
90 views

OMAC : Padding on empty string

I started to implement some MAC since last week with the specifications given here. I'm currently testing the OMAC (one-key CBC) with test vectors. In the OMAC specifications at page 4, they explain ...
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99 views

How does the length of the plaintext affect the cipher strength?

Let the block length 64-bit, 256-bit key, cipher text accordingly - 64 bits. What is the strength of the block cipher, if any unknown attacks, which could reduce its strength. We can only brute force. ...
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Why is it important to generate a pseudorandom permutation from a pseudorandom function?

Most of the papers on block cipher constructions, especially the ones which discuss constructing block ciphers of arbitrary lengths or small domains, the techniques are designed based on building a ...
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333 views

Forge CBC-MAC given the MAC of two messages and of their concatenation

I found this question about CBC-MAC forging and want to make sure I understand it: Let a and be be two strings of block length one. Suppose the sender sends $(a, \text{CBC-MAC}(a)), (b, ...
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1answer
219 views

Generalizing a CBC-MAC collision with a common final message block

I found this question from a textbook but I don't really understand what it is asking: Suppose $c$ is $1$ block long, $a$ and $b$ are strings that are a multiple of the block length, and ...
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157 views

Why does CBC-MAC need prefix-free inputs to be a good PRF?

In the FFX spec, there is a note about using CMAC as the round function. Security notes. The round function F is constructed in such a way that the set of inputs on which the CBC-MAC is ...
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1answer
361 views

Serpent cipher : Osvik S-Boxes confusion and test vectors

I'm having hard time with the implementation of the S-Boxes by Osvik found in this paper: Speeding up Serpent. At the end of the paper, all the s-boxes are given and then, I just implement them. ...
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3answers
264 views

OFB or CTR mode without an IV

I'm reading the SSL specs here. The interesting thing seems to be that RC4 is not re-keyed with a new IV for each message. The stream cipher state is simply carried over to the next record. Why is ...
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638 views

What's wrong with MARS?

Why did the MARS cipher receive such a high number of negative votes in the AES competition? As I understand only MARS and Serpent implement measures to counter future cryptoanalytic attacks, so it ...
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390 views

Serpent block cipher : S0 to S7 functions unclear

I am presently implementing the serpent block cipher in C++ following the specifications. It's important to mention that I'm implementing the cipher in bitslice mode. You'll need the The full ...
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3answers
268 views

What is the difference between a 'cipher' and a 'mode of operation'?

What is the difference between the term cipher (a name like RIJNDAEL) and mode of operation (like ECB)? Aren't these both terms for the encryption/decryption technique?
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702 views

How exactly was the finalist chosen in the NIST AES competition?

I was just reading the Stick Figure Guide to AES and came across an interesting table explaining how the winner was chosen: Unfortunately the NIST site is down so I can't gain further information ...
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1answer
142 views

Is AES a linear hash?

So, having read a variety of documentations on AES encryption, I came to the unknowledgeable conclusion that the key schedule applied to the array of chunks, and not just the 14 cycles on a single ...
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How does GCM (Galois/Counter Mode) work? [closed]

Can somebody explain how this mode works? What view has cipher text and how does it help to authenticate input’s data?
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2answers
264 views

What (precisely) is a block cipher?

If I follow the wikipedia or crypto.stackexchange definition, any simple XOR encryption where the key is as long as the plain text should qualify as a secure block cipher. Now I thought what would ...
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1answer
177 views

NP complete problems related to permutations of binary vectors or block ciphers

Recently, T.Gowers wrote a blog entry called "How not to prove that P is not equal to NP" about the Razborov/Rudich Natural Proofs paper. He has a construction where he talks about compositions of ...
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what are the uses of tweaks in block ciphers?

Few block cipher modes has additional parameter , tweaks , especially the ones that are format preserving . Now the comments section of this blog entry says such tweaks can be used for BIN numbers, ...
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355 views

How does one use AES block cipher modes of operation?

This is the sequel to my previous question about AES block cipher modes of operation. (See: AES block cipher modes of operation) Now, here is my real problem. I have to use a block cipher with 8 bit ...
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430 views

AES block cipher modes of operation

have a project in which I have to implement an en/de-cryption structure using a standard AES block of 128-bits in VHDL and I think I'm a bit confused. So I'd like to ask some questions about AES and ...
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392 views

Making counter (CTR) mode robust against application state loss

Counter (CTR) mode, which is a block cipher mode of operation, has some desirable qualities (no padding, parallel encryption and decryption), but at the cost of failing badly when non-unique counter ...
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192 views

How to perform benchmark of block/stream ciphers?

I would like to perform some benchmarking of different block and stream ciphers for general data (lossless and lossy data) encryption and decryption (with focus on power consumption). To get general ...
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1answer
302 views

How to choose keys for a block cipher?

AES and DES are block ciphers. Mathematically, its the mapping from plaintext space to ciphertext space using the keys i.e. $\{{0,1}\}^k$ x $\{{0,1}\}^l \longrightarrow \{{0,1}\}^l$ I know that these ...
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What is the ideal cipher model?

What is the ideal cipher model? What assumptions does it make about a block cipher? How does it relate to assuming that my block cipher is a pseudo-random permutation (PRP)? When is the ideal ...
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Can the AES encryption and decryption algorithms be described as a polynomial for a specific key?

AES is a block cipher that consists of non-linear and linear parts to provide the Shannon requirements of confusion and diffusion respectively. The linear parts can for sure be described as a ...
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Stream vs Block cipher: Synchronising and the receiver

I am learning cryptography at school and I was wondering: How are the blocks/streams after decryption synchronized at the receiver to form one long meaningful message? Am I right by saying that ...
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Is there a theoretical maximum useful keysize given the block-size?

Consider a block-cipher $F$ with a $N$-bit block-size and a $M$-bit key-size. That is, if $k$ is a $M$-bit key, $p$ is a $N$-bit block of plain-text and $c$ is a $N$-bit block of cipher-text, then: ...
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148 views

Security of (cryptographic) padding compared to other methods for blockcompletion for block ciphers

As said in the heading, I want to know how the security of different padding methods, e.g. ANSI X.923, ISO 10126 and PKCS7, is compared to other methods to reach the needed block size, like ciphertext ...
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469 views

Camellia or AES - which should I use?

Imagine I am a software developer. I want a block cipher, and I have the choice of using AES or Camellia. Which should I use? Which makes more sense from a technical perspective, and why? I need ...
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418 views

Using IV buffer after altered inside a Rijndael CBC Encryption/Decryption process as IV for next message?

When sending a block to be decrypted or encrypted, with RijndaelCBC, we input the data to decrypt/encrypt and an IV for syncing and to prevent identical outputs for identical inputs. This question is ...
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191 views

Does CBC encryption of a hash provide authenticity?

Given a message $M$ and a cryptographic hash function $H$, let $f(M) = E_K(M || H(M))$ where $E_K$ is AES-128-CBC encryption with PKCS#5 padding. Take $H = \textrm{SHA-256}$ if it matters. In other ...
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Strength of CBC with Ciphertext Stealing

Is CBC with Ciphertext Stealing (CTS) considerably weaker than CBC with padding such as PKCS7? I would imagine the most common situation where CTS is necessary would be due to some size constraint of ...
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1answer
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How does DES decryption work? Is it the same as encryption or the reverse? [duplicate]

If DES decryption is the same as encryption done in reverse order, then how can the reversed S-Box convert 4 bits into 6 bits?
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Practical uses of Manipulation Detection Code (MDC) and IGE

I've just skimmed over most of the paper "On Message Integrity in Symmetric Encryption". I've included (the last) part of the abstract below: We show that generic compositions of ...
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SIMON implementation, decryption issues

I've been trying to implement the new SIMON block cipher in Ruby as a personal challenge. The spec didn't include a pseudocode version of the decryption but I thought I had it figured out. The code I ...
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1answer
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How difficult is it to find the “pre-image” of a block cipher?

Say that I have $$ C_1 = AES_{k_1}(M_1) $$ How difficult would it be to find a key, K2 and plaintext M2 $$ C_2 = AES_{k_2}(M_2) $$ such that $$ C_1 == C_2 $$ How would using a block cipher ...
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CTR mode nonce with aggressive key rotation policy

I'm writing a small encryption library which will be required to use the shortest possible amount of overhead for describing ciphertexts. I want to use CTR mode with a 6-byte random nonce. Normally ...
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Why is it said that if we have a duplicate ciphertext block it can leak our information?

I have been recently going through a question: http://security.stackexchange.com/questions/15767/what-do-key-size-and-block-size-mean-in-cryptography and it created in me a series of doubts. Referring ...
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What prevents continued hashing of a key from being used as a cipher when xored with plaintext? [duplicate]

This is just an idea I had while looking through some threads so take it as you will. Given a plaintext of any length and a key that a specific hash function is capable of taking as input(I mention ...
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A block cipher with independent keys for each round

I want to modify a standard block cipher in the following way. I replace each round key by a key picked at random. Is this block cipher as secure as the original one ? Thank you. EDIT Some missing ...
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What is the difference between PKCS#5 padding and PKCS#7 padding

One runtime platform provides an API that supplies PKCS#5 padding for block cipher modes such as ECB and CBC. These modes have been defined for the triple DES, AES and Blowfish block ciphers. The ...
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What does NSA mean by 'Analyzable'?

Recently NSA published two new algorithms, Simon and Speck. In the abstract they say The aim of SIMON and SPECK is to fill the need for secure, flexible, and analyzable lightweight block ciphers. ...