# Tagged Questions

A block cipher is an encryption algorithm which encrypts fixed-size blocks of plaintext to same-sized blocks of ciphertext. For good ciphers every bit of the ciphertext block depends on every bit of the plaintext block and every bit of the key.

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### Should Increment functions be near-constant time?

When operating a block cipher in CTR or GCM mode, should the function used to increment the counter or initialization vector be near-constant time? Here, I'm wondering about the "addition with carry" ...
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### Encrypt-Mix-Encrypt: Full Diffusion?

I've read "A Parallelizable Enciphering Mode" by Halevi and Rogaway about the encrypt-mix-encrypt mode for ciphers and was asking myself if this mode provides "full" diffusion. So if an attacker ...
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### Adding tweak to a block cipher

I know there are XEX, XTS and other ways to add tweak to block cipher without modifying cipher itself. However they are quite slow and/or complex. If we assume we have a secure block cipher round ...
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### Turning PRPs in PRGs with a counter

I am following the Coursera Cryptography I course and I have the following question, I am a bit perplexed by the statement, in week 2 lecture "What are block cyphers?" that a counter-mode PRF is a ...
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### Need for 3 rounds in Luby Rackoff theorem

I get that using Feistel network we can create a secure PRP from a secure PRF (in 3 rounds according to theorem). My question is why not just 2 rounds of Feistel network is sufficient. Is it that ...
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### How to use RCON In Key Expansion of 128 Bit Advanced Encryption Standard

I have a question about RCON here is my illustration... this is the 128 bit key.. [2b] [28] [ab] [09] [7e] [ae] [f7] [cf] [15] [d2] [15] [4f] [16] [a6] [88] [3c] ...
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### Turning a 64 bit block cipher into a 128 bit block cipher

There are quite a few block cipher modes of operation that require 128 bits. There are also modes of operation where a higher block size than 128, e.g. a block size of 256 bit would even be practical. ...
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### Should I use a self-designed Block Cipher Mode of Operation?

We all know we should NOT roll our self-designed encryption algorithm, how about block cipher mode with a certificated cipher method like AES? Will a self-designed block cipher mode cause any flaws or ...
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### Block Cipher Without Key Schedule?

I'm designing a cryptography assignment for a college security course, and one of the problems is to perform a simple meet-in-the-middle attack on a 2-round, 2-key cipher. Since we want this to be a ...
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### What's the consequence of having a short IV? Is one mode better in that case?

I've read lots about null-length IVs being bad for most modes. In a scenario where passing a 128-bit IV along with each message isn't feasible, how would generating the IV from a smaller passed-along ...
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### GCM encryption for 256-bit and 512-bit block ciphers

The Galois/Counter Mode of Operation (GCM) This paper describe using GCM mode with 128-bit and 64-bit block cipher. Can we use this mode for 256-bit and 512-bit block cipher?
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### What are the advantages of CBC over ECB?

From this question I understand that, for a block cipher, using CBC is better than ECB. It seems that if one only has part of the cipher text, then decryption is difficult because the decryption ...
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### Why is it important to generate a pseudorandom permutation from a pseudorandom function?

Most of the papers on block cipher constructions, especially the ones which discuss constructing block ciphers of arbitrary lengths or small domains, the techniques are designed based on building a ...
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### CTR mode nonce with aggressive key rotation policy

I'm writing a small encryption library which will be required to use the shortest possible amount of overhead for describing ciphertexts. I want to use CTR mode with a 6-byte random nonce. Normally ...
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### Chance of finding the right key by exhaustively searching on half of the key space

An exhaustive search of half the key space requires $2^{n-1}$ work and provides the right answer 75% of the time. If the attacker finds the key, he knows the answer. If he doesn't find the key, he ...
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### Why does CBC-MAC need prefix-free inputs to be a good PRF?

In the FFX spec, there is a note about using CMAC as the round function. Security notes. The round function F is constructed in such a way that the set of inputs on which the CBC-MAC is ...
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### How does DES decryption work? Is it the same as encryption or the reverse? [duplicate]

If DES decryption is the same as encryption done in reverse order, then how can the reversed S-Box convert 4 bits into 6 bits?
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### Using One Time Pad with a block cypher

The One Time Pad is often described with a xor cipher. This is nice to show the theoretical strengths of the one time pad but not so great in real world scenarios where key reuse is a danger. So Is ...
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### Do we have to consider the cryptographic properties of the decryption, if we're only using the encryption?

Treyfer for example has slower diffusion in decryption. It has full diffusion between words in 2 rounds for encryption and 7 rounds for decryption. Do we have to consider the (bad) cryptographic ...
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### What are the steps to decrypt a TLS 1.1 record?

My question is related to another question in Cryptography about TLS 1.1 and 1.2. I have read both RFC 2246 The TLS Protocol Version 1.0 and RFC 4346 The TLS Protocol Version 1.1. What I know is that ...