A brute-force attack is attempting to find a secret value by trying all possible values until the correct one is found.

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BruteForcer XOR (bfxor.exe) to attack 64-bit keys and longer

First of all, this is not a beginner's question since I already know a good deal about encryption and brute-force attacks. This is also no question on how to code programs for brute-force attacks ...
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329 views

Importance of salt when deriving an encryption key

I'm very curious to know this and a bit confuses too: Suppose, I have two files encrypted using AES-128bit with keys PBKDF2-derived from the same password and the same salt. If an attacker does ...
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181 views

Can 64-bit “PRINCEcore” practically be brute forced?

There is a cipher called PRINCE proposed in ASIACRYPT two years ago. See the paper: “PRINCE – A Low-latency Block Cipher for Pervasive Computing Applications” The cipher divides the 128-bit key into ...
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How long to bruteforce a RSA key [duplicate]

Suppose I have a 2048 bit RSA public key, and want to brute force the corresponding private key. I guess there are 2048^16 possible combinations? How long would this take me to brute force with an ...
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682 views

Brute forcing Cardan grille

Having a "rotating" square Cardan Grill with sides long n cells, how could i determinate the cost of a brute-force attack? How many configurations should be considered to perform an exhaustive ...
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73 views

How would an attacker perform an exhaustive key search on a block cipher using ECB mode?

Do you always assume from Kerchoff's principle, that the attacker has access to everything but the decryption key? That is, am I to assume that to perform an exhaustive key search, the attacker has a ...
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149 views

Cracking simple RSA when just the ciphertext and one public key is known

Can someone explain to me (Or better yet, point me to a tool that does the brute forcing) how to crack a standard, simple RSA cipher (So don't bother with padding) if I know just one public key, the ...
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Kryptos : K2. What is the origin of the “abscissa” keyword?

I'm studying the Kryptos sculpture with its cryptographic puzzles K1 to K4. Similar to the "palimsest" keyword for K1, the keyword "abscissa" for K2 was determined by brute-force. To better ...
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412 views

Can iterated key expansion in Blowfish slow down bruteforce attacks on small key sizes?

Suppose I have to use 64-bit keys for encryption (e.g. to comply with export restrictions). For this question, assume this key is truly random, and the encryption algorithm is Blowfish. Blowfish key ...
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573 views

What would be the most effective way to brute force a 16 char AES key?

I have a file that is encrypted in AES using a 16 char string. The string is (a-zA-Z0-9) and .,?!. Also, it only contains words ...
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69 views

Is it safer to use timestamp in REST authentication?

I am working on a personal project to build a REST authentication system which authenticate clients via three parameters: ...
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Resynchronizing brute-force attack against stream ciphers

There is a stream cipher without any known cryptographic weaknesses. The attacker knows parts of the key so she can reduce the key-space to a size that can be practically brute-forced. However the ...
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242 views

Brute Force AES Calculations

I have an encryption service in which the user decides the length and the type of key, so I would like to build a tool that educates the user on the brute force times for the key they created if using ...
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40 views

How does a cracker know if they've broken AES-CBC encryption? [duplicate]

How does a cracker know if they've broken CBC or stream encryption? With hashe cracking one would know because you have the password that you started with to test. But for CBC decryption, you have a ...
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137 views

More technical details on the ongoing (alleged) Chinese cyberattacks [closed]

Recently, there has been quite a lot of news about the Chinese compromising various US weapons systems and stealing military designs through "cyberwarfare". I am reading the news sources about these ...
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3answers
705 views

Brute-force attacking One Time Pads feasible?

I have a ciphertext encoded with One Time Pad. I do not know the key. How can I find the possible keys which when decoded, will result in a meaningful plain text?
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135 views

The weak link is the password?

Consider a secure modern block cipher like AES/Serpent/Twofish. I hear everyone say that the complexity is $2^{128}$ for a 128 block cipher. But isn't the weak link the actual hashed and salted ...
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88 views

Brute Force on Key

If you are brute forcing a key and trying trillions of combos, how will you know when you accidentally hit the right answer? Clearly you can't look at each decoded answer to see which "looks right".
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397 views

Practical Attack on RSA

Currently I am designing an RSA based application, and I am thinking of how long should the key be in order to be secure against attacks. I know that RSA 4096 bit key can be recovered using Sound ...
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232 views

Does brute force attack use the program that created the ciphertext?

I've read several articles about brute force cryptanalytic attacks, but none explicitly say what algorithm is being run for each attempt, nor what criteria is used to declare an attempt a success or a ...
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376 views

How long does it take to brute force a Wordpress password?

I'm not a cryptograhpy expert, I am a web developer trying to determine the origin of a Wordpress blog hack, and how likely it is that it was brute forced. The administrator account username had been ...
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129 views

Brute Force Attack Strategies

A Brute Force Attack obviously involves attempting to decrypt ciphertext (with the associated plaintext being known) using all possible encryption keys. Aside from attempting all possible ...
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250 views

Scrypt's maximum strength to increase entropy of lame passwords

The developers claim that a 6 letter long password hashed with 3.8 second's of scrypt would cost $900 to brute-force. If we use more cycles, how quickly will the brute force cost increase? What ...
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Kryptos : K1. What is the origin of the “palimpsest” keyword?

I'm studying the Kryptos sculpture with its cryptographic puzzles K1 to K4. I understand that the keyword "palimpsest" was reverse-engineered using the tableau (and brute-force computer processing), ...
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2answers
79 views

Brute force knowing a part of the password

So here is the problem, my brother forgot about the eight digit numeric part of his password, he is using Ubuntu 15.04 default whole disk encryption To make it clear, this was his password (example) ...
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Why does a hacker need to crack the key to an encrypted file, instead of just brute forcing the password? [closed]

Most encryption softwares don't seem to have a trial limit. So why would a hacker need to crack the key, or even need to know the salt value, if he can just brute force the 6-8 digit password?
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264 views

Calculating the average key search time of DES

I am trying to understand how to calculate the average key search time given a specific scenario: Suppose we have a program that uses standard DES with 56 key bits, and we can test 10^6 keys per ...
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107 views

how to get the file used to brute force any encryption method [closed]

Bitlocker as example uses AES 128 Bit encryption as default - if it was brute forced how it can be done , I mean where's the file that will be brute forced to generate the password (If I'm right that ...
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134 views

Has a collision ever been found for SHA-1/2/3 when truncated to 128 bits?

I'm aware that MD5 is broken, and collisions have been found for it. I'm interested in other hashes (SHA-1, SHA-2, SHA-3) when truncated to the same digest size, i.e. 128 bits. The time complexity of ...
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240 views

Java RSA Padding: no libraries used

I'm trying to implement RSA without using any java libraries using the algorithm from wikipedia HERE So, anyone can clearly see that it is a raw RSA, and can directly be attacked. The question is ...
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25 views

How do we measure number of possible encryptions in One Time Pad [duplicate]

trying to brute force a specific length of ciphered pad, how do we measure the total number of possible encryptions in One Time Pad
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87 views

What is the danger if a non-prime is chosen for RSA? [duplicate]

I was reading this question about generating primes for RSA keys. The answers point out that most implementations of of the algorithm use probabilistic prime-ness checking algorithms. The answer by ...
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46 views

DES key complementation property [duplicate]

It is known that DES has the key-complementation property. That is, given any key $k$ and any message $m\in\{0,1\}^{64}$ $$\operatorname{DES}_k(m)=\overline{\operatorname{DES}_\overline k(\overline ...
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Do Brute-Force Attacks and Cryptanalysis refute Kerckhoffs's principle? [closed]

According to Kerckhoffs's principle "A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge." Now I want to throw in a provoking formula of mine which ...
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3answers
23k views

Uncompress password protected WinRar file without password

I would like to know how to extract contents of the password protected WinRar file without the password. I have downloaded that WinRar file from a file hosting website and found out that it was ...
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2answers
234 views

What is the advantage of an attacker over breaking a 4 digits PIN?

When a hardware system is protected by a 4 digits password, what is the advantage of the attacker into breaking that system? Isn't it $10*10*10*10=10^{4}$? If $\frac{1}{10^{4}}$ is the cost of such ...
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Obtaining a key that's using ice algorithm

I have a text file that has been processed by the SNOW steganography tool that uses ICE encryption. However, I do not know the key that would enable me to decrypt and retrieve the message hidden. ...
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Unbreakable code and mathematical impossibility

Is an unbreakable code mathematically possible , considering a code with finite number of characters but has infinite combinations , using brute force is it not compulsory that the correct code be ...