In SCRAM (RFC5802, page 8) the client generates ClientKey to server, which is a derivation of the original password. This is communicated to the server in a secure ...
Quoting the handbook of applied cryptography, chapter 10.3.3 (i): Identification based on PK decryption and witness. Consider the following protocol: $A \leftarrow B: h(r), B, P_A(r,B)$ ...
Say we have door where you have to say a password to pass. If theres someone standing nearby he would hear the password and could also use it. So therefore the doorman gives you a different number ...