What is the expected number of trials required to selectively forge ed25519? Please include how it is calculated.
Given a message $M$ and a signature $S$, is it feasible to find a RSA public key $(n,e)$ such that $S$ verifies as a valid signature on $M$ (using this public key)? What if we're given one public key ...
I've just started working with elliptic curves and ECSDA in particular, so my understanding of the underlying math isn't great. The thing I'm currently stuck on is trying to understand why replay ...
If the GCD(r, p-1) is small and the value k is used to sign a message using ElGamal is also small. Then the secret value of x can be determined. Why is this true? How would one retrieve x?