# Tagged Questions

Analysis of individual security aspects of a cipher or algorithm, not the security of a cipher or algorithm in general (which would lean towards “algorithm-design”).

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### How does Blowfish avoid successful cryptanalysis? [closed]

I have researched the Blowfish algorithm and am curious as to why there exists no effective cryptanalysis for this algorithm as of yet. What basic principles or features allow Blowfish to achieve ...
2k views

### finding collision for truncated SHA1 hash output

Suppose we truncate only 40 bits of sha1 hash output.hence it is insecure.how can we find two message as input which gives first 40 bits of hash as same value i.e we have to find collision for first ...
173 views

### A variant of Shamir secret sharing

Suppose implement the Shamir secret sharing as following: we select a degree $d$ polynomial $P$ with a zero coefficient of 0, and all other coefficents selected randomly from $Z_p$; and to this ...
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### Roots of polynomial in Shamir secret sharing

I need to know whether one can obtain any roots of the polynomial in Shamir secret sharing if he possesses less than threshold shares. For instance in (t,n) if he has t-1 shares can he obtain any ...
927 views

### Key management for military GPS receivers

I wonder what encryption scheme is used in high-precision encrypted GPS streams (the so-called “P(Y) code”). If there's a master key needed, then it has to be in every device. Yet the master key doesn'...
289 views

### What is “msg = group.random(GT)” in Charm encryption schemes?

In many encryption schemes in Charm the random group message is used instead of a text-message: msg = group.random(GT) For example, in CP-ABE scheme, random ...
17k views

### Recommended skills for a job in cryptology [closed]

First let me apologize if this is an ill posed question. Let me also note that I do not in any way seek a comprehensive answer, simply your thoughts on what makes for a valuable asset to a company ...
565 views

### Regarding Key Strength with DES and Blowfish

I had a small discussion with my friend on combining two encryption algorithms based on 64-bit keys. Say I have a plain text of 64 bits which I want to encrypt. My Key size is 128 bits. I will use ...
1k views

### breaking fully homomorphic encryption schemes

Fully homomorphic encryption schemes allow one to evaluate any arbitrary computation over encrypted data. Intuitively this seems to be too weak, irrespective of how we achieve this. An adversary who ...
231 views

### Are there valid attacks on full SHA-1?

Google today announced they are sunsetting SHA-1. Its fine by me. But that made me realize I am not keeping up with the research on SHA-1. The Wikipedia page only says Stevens' attack is the most ...
490 views

### Breaking Double Encryption

I am trying to understand how an attacker knows when he has successfully decrypted a ciphertext for an assignment. As such, some pointers/hints for the following questions would be greatly appreciated....
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### What's causing the poor randomness in this program: the LCG, or the program logic itself?

(Crypto Gods, I should begin by stressing that I haven't lost my mind: I'm not doing this in real life, I'm just trying to understand the theory behind what's happening. With your help, hopefully I ...
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### Cracking an appliance's network protocol

I'm trying to crack my thermostat's network protocol. I've captured several rounds of network traffic and here is what I've got to work with. Communicating via HTTP POST The POST data is JSON ...
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### Hill Cipher question

Recently, I was given three ciphers to crack for my cryptography class. At this point, I have guessed that one of them is likely a Hill cipher (probably 3x3, as that is the most complex we have done ...
668 views

### Is there some way to generate a non-predictable random number in a decentralised network?

Is there a way to generate a random number with given restrictions: It will be used in a decentralised network with a big number of peers (no central authority to generate it) Its generation should ...
890 views

### Entropy of the key

Suppose a $1000$-bit key used in the one-time pad is not randomly and uniformly generated. Suppose that the values of the first $5$ bits are $0$, and the other $995$ bits are randomly generated and ...
9k views

### Can Pre-Paid Cards be cracked?

Is it possible to deduce the original function that used to generate those prepaid cards number that are used for charging your mobile phone credits? For example: If I've collected about 1000 of ...
168 views

### SIMONs Cryptoanalysis

I'm reading Cryptanalysis of the SIMON Family of Block Ciphers. In Section 3.1, it says: For SIMON, consider an n-bit input difference $\alpha= x\oplus x'$ to $F$ of Hamming weight one. As the ...
609 views

### How should I treat a new cipher release like Spritz?

I have been looking at both the paper as well as the sourcecode of Spritz — a spongy RC4-like stream cipher and hash function by Ronald L. Rivest and Jacob Schuldt. The paper states We have also ...
230 views

### practically verifying block ciphers strength [closed]

How do we verify practically the strength of a block ciphers? Most of the security analysis of block ciphers is usually around theoretical analysis and proofs in some random oracle model etc. For ...
239 views

### PBKDF2 Salt and Password Ordering

I am currently reading about PBKDF2, and understand that the salt is used only once, while the password is used multiple times in the computation of the final key (see this question). How would the ...
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### Which causes longer “break” time (in general)?

In general (if possible to determine) which would make an output harder to turn into plain text with a computer? Extreme Length (minor complexity change) Extreme algorithmic complexity (minor length ...
272 views

### Seemingly simple decryption question

Forgive the very novice question, but... Given an algorithm which, upon inputting an unchanging 4-character string, generates a variable 6-character string, but having no idea what the algorithm is ...
485 views

### How does compression before encryption leak info about the input?

Apparently current best practices recommend that you do not compress before you encrypt. For example in this blog entry (*): http://sockpuppet.org/blog/2013/07/22/applied-practical-cryptography/ It ...
2k views

### Why does DES use exactly 16 rounds?

Why does DES use exactly 16 rounds and not more or less than 16? What is the significance of using 16 rounds?
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### Attacking a hardware AES implementation if it leaks the intermediate round states

Let's say that we have a hardware AES implementation that, on request, will encrypt or decrypt a 16-byte block of data in ECB mode using a fixed key, but refuses to reveal its fixed key. In other ...
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### ML/NN Cryptanalysis

Is it computationally plausible to use NN/ML to do any of the following tasks? "Real" cryptanalysis. Cyclic neural networks for extended computation, but break the hash all the way through. ...
378 views

### How feasible is word-level frequency analysis over English (or any language)?

Say I have some black box which, given any English word, deterministically outputs a token for that word. Assume our black box is implemented using strong cryptography, i.e. the hardness of reversing ...
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### Cryptanalysis of Nonlinear Table Lookup

I am trying to derive a symmetric key based on a master key, combined with a simple string. Based on my limited knowledge, it seems that something like PBKDF2 would do that for me in a well-defined ...
658 views

### Can we ensure the security of a crypto-algorithm and -implementaton against acoustic cryptanalysis?

Like people always say: “Attacks only get worse…” — which is why I'm asking early. I have been reading the paper “RSA Key Extraction via Low-Bandwidth Acoustic Cryptanalysis” published December 18, ...
377 views

### Revealing random bit permutation

I am new in cryptography. I want to determine the complexity of revealing a random bit permutation which is used as block cipher for plaintexts (bitstrings of length n). An adversary catches different ...
837 views

### Theoretical attack on RSA

The high security of RSA is granted, because it is very hard to factorize $$N = p * q$$ Nevertheless, there is actually no need of factorizing $N$, in order to generate the $Private$ $Key$, but the ...
778 views

### Rainbow table for DES with all-zero plaintext?

Consider the function $F$ from $\{0,1\}^{56}$ to $\{0,1\}^{64}$, mapping the operative bits of a DES key to the ciphertext for all-zero plaintext. How could we organize a rainbow table to invert that ...
20k views

### Is AES-256 weaker than 192 and 128 bit versions?

From a paper via Schneier on Security's Another AES Attack (emphasis mine): In the case of AES-128, there is no known attack which is faster than the 2128 complexity of exhaustive search. However, ...
2k views

### Reversing DJB2 Hashes

I have some spare time, and a few hundred DJB2-hashed values sitting around. I thought I'd try to do something "useful" and invert DJB2, such that I could calculate the plaintext of the hashes (which ...
130 views

### Why is Lamport-Diffie secure?

Why is Lamport-Diffie secure? I note that there is a demonstration based on onewayness (in the book postquantum cryptography). But a one way function is not sufficient to ensure that it can not infer ...
8k views

### Example Rainbow Table Generation

I have read up on rainbow tables and think I understand the idea behind them. However, I find that it would be better for me to actually attempt to implement a (very basic) rainbow table generator in ...
171 views

### How to construct a next bit predictor from a distinguisher

I read the claim, without proof, that it is possible to construct a next bit predictor for any PRNG given an oracle distinguisher for that PRNG and vice versa. How do I prove that? A distinguisher ...
506 views

### KDF based on HMAC-SHA-256

Is KDF based on HMAC-SHA-256(Hashed Message Authentication Code, Secure Hash Algorithm) algorithm a suitable option to generate symmetric key from the secret key? What is the basic funda, behind ...
1k views

### Predicting PRNG given some of its previous output

I a have a question about PRNGs and this is my very first experience with them. I have the following generator that takes a 56-bit seed $p$ during initialization and then chooses both $X$ and $Y$ ...
337 views

### Importance of salt when deriving an encryption key

I'm very curious to know this and a bit confuses too: Suppose, I have two files encrypted using AES-128bit with keys PBKDF2-derived from the same password and the same salt. If an attacker does ...
127 views

### LFSR and Markov chain question [closed]

This may seem an elementary question about LFSRs, and their link to Markov chains. LFSRs show Markov chain behaviour in that there can be a transition matrix defined over the LFSR, this follows from ...
160 views

### McEliece and cryptanalysis

What is the computational time to break McEliece on a quantum computer? I've seen that polynomial time algorithms exist, but for special conditions. What about the general case?
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### Basic attacks on McEliece; finding S and P

Take a McEliece cryptosystem with public generator matrix $G' = S G P$ where $G$ is a generator of a secret code with known fast decoding (not necessarily a Goppa code over $\mathbb{F}_2$), $S$ is ...
952 views

### How to prove the security of the PRNG?

Are there any realties tests or criterias that prove the security of the PRNG? What kind of tests or criteria?
645 views

### Attacks on AES-128 (ECB) based on some knowledge of plaintext

I'm working with a third party protocol which employs AES-128 in ECB mode of operation to encrypt a packet composed of 16-byte blocks (it encrypts each block independently). I'm trying to determine if ...
395 views

### LFSR Output Sampling for Berlekamp-Massey

Looking at the use of Linear Feedback Shift Registers in cryptographic algorithms, I have learned that the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm can be used to find the (shortest) LFSR that generates a given ...
190 views

### Is it a good idea to use Lagrange/Newtonian interpolation for encryption?

I see that Lagrange interpolation is commonly used for secret sharing, but could it be used for encryption? The goal is to reduce database I/O and compute new values on the fly. Suppose the use case ...