Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key.

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Why, or when, to use an Initialization Vector?

i'm trying to figure out when an Intialization Vector (IV) should be used. There are anecdotal reports that WEP was broken because of weak IV's. It's also claimed that if two pieces of plaintext are ...
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Why is an Encrypt-and-MAC scheme with deterministic MAC not IND-CPA secure?

I'm preparing myself to exam, but I have a lot of troubles with rigorous proofs. It's the task from two-years ago exam. At the bottom I reminded one definition. Let $(Gen_E,Enc,Dec)$ be an ...
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186 views

Messages of different lengths and one-time computationally-secret

I'm preparing myself to exam, but I have a lot of troubles with rigorous proofs. Let $\Pi=(Gen,Enc,Dec)$ be an efficient secret-key encryption scheme that is not fixed-length. That is, for any $n$ ...
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952 views

How easily could this be cracked?

I'm looking into encrypting files like this: First, I SHA-1 hash the password. Let's say the password is something normal like "hello123", and then hashed. Then I encrypt a file using this: ...
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352 views

Why is a non fixed-length encryption scheme worse than a fixed-length one?

I have the following definition (highlights by me): An (efficient secret-key) encryption scheme $(Gen,Enc,Dec)$, where $Gen$ and $Enc$ are PPT algorithms and $Dec$ is a Deterministic Polytime ...
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Matrix Multiplication of Bits

How to multiply the matrix of bits example I have two 4x4 matrices of bits ...
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Is AES-256 weaker than 192 and 128 bit versions?

From a paper via Schneier on Security's Another AES Attack (emphasis mine): In the case of AES-128, there is no known attack which is faster than the 2128 complexity of exhaustive search. However, ...
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363 views

Key derivation from a random seed

The main problem is to use a block cipher to generate a random key. I would like to generate 256-bits key which can be as random as possible. I generate it in the following way: Pick a plaintext ...
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How can I implement the “Multiplication Modulo” and “Addition Modulo” operations in IDEA?

I am currently working on IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm), and I don't know how to perform Multiplication Modulo and Addition Modulo. This is how IDEA operates: IDEA operates on ...
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187 views

How to construct a variable length IND-CPA cipher from a fixed length one?

Suppose we can construct a secure (IND-CPA) encryption scheme for fixed length messages. I was wondering if there is a natural way to extend this construction for messages of variable length such that ...
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337 views

Key Scheduling of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA)

How to perform the key scheduling in International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), I took a research but I can't understand how to perform it, "further groups of eight keys are created by rotating ...
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683 views

Traditional DES scheme in Unix crypt function

In a security context course, we need to reproduce the old DES hashing scheme in the crypt program, on an old unix system. I am actually reading the crypt page on wikipedia: The traditional ...
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283 views

Can I save space for short messages by using encryption with private key instead of a signature?

Let's say I have a message, a Private Key and a Public Key. Normally if you want to see if the message is unaltered and is from the sender you would have the message part + signature part, which you ...
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How do I encrypt with the private key? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: RSA encryption with private key and decryption with a public key This wording is creeping everywhere (e.g. there): "I encrypt with the private key" and even sometimes, ...
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137 views

Encryption algorithm which produces comparable results for substrings

I am wondering is there any encryption algorithm available which produces comparable string. I am expecting the output as shown below. ...
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2answers
161 views

RSA keys finding when messages are known

I have this situation, where, in a game, people send messages to each other (game moves etc...) These messages need to be encrypted, and should only be readable by the destination person. I am using ...
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1answer
868 views

AES encryption for images [closed]

Why AES based encryption is not recommended for encrypting images with high redundancy in their content? for example, the encryption of an image which shows a bird in the blue sky. Most of the pixels ...
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2answers
542 views

Avalanche noise RNG for one-time pad use

I came across this little HRNG widget and was really intrigued as I have been looking for a decent but afordable source for truly random bits to use in a one-time pad. The question is, would a HRNG ...
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912 views

Perfect security definitions

In my notes, there are 2 definitions of perfect security: "For $M \in \{0,1\}^m$, define the distribution $D_M$ on strings as follows: to choose a random member of $D_M$, choose a random $K \in ...
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672 views

One-time pad and zero key

I'm doing some exercises before my exam, and I am stuck with task number 4 in this file: http://www.cs.umd.edu/~jkatz/crypto/f10/hw1.pdf Could you help me with this task? When using the one-time ...
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5answers
577 views

How to encrypt a short string and keep the length secret

I need to encrypt relatively short strings (generally less than 100 characters). If possible, I want to avoid leaking the length of these strings. How can I do that? The thing that came to my mind is ...
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467 views

What is the theoretical and practical status of mental poker?

I'm able to find a lot of scattered papers on the development of mental poker since RSA proposed the initial solution but no recent report (i.e. after 2005) on what is the status of the problem, eg: ...
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What's is the main difference between a key, an IV and a nonce?

What are the main differences between a nonce, a key and an IV. Without any doubt the key should be kept secret. But what about the nonce and the IV. What's the main difference between them and their ...
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Could the Enigma algorithm be classified as a Feistel network?

The Enigma algorithm is a encryption method that was developed (I believe) by the Germans in WWII. It went a little something like this: When a letter was typed on the keyboard of the Enigma ...
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When is each key used when encrypting an email using OpenPGP?

When you send an email using PGP to encrypt emails, is the recipients public key used to encrypt the email, or is your private key used? Are they both used? At what points do each of the four keys ...
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312 views

What is the strength of unpadded RSA?

I would like to use unpadded RSA for homomorphic encryption in a toy P2P game, for things like fair coin flips and shuffling. How many bits of security does unpadded RSA have, in relation to its key ...
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Why is CBC with predictable IV considered insecure against CPA

I just learned that using CBC encryption with an IV which is predictable is not secure. From what I understand, using certain plain texts, and then guessing the IV that is uses, the attacker can ...
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FIPS 140-2 Compliant Algorithms

Is there any reference to check the list of encryption & signing algorithms which are compliant to FIPS 140-2. After an exhaustive search I could find only "AES". Any suggestions would be much ...
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How does order-preserving encryption work?

Order-preserving encryption (OPE) is, apparently, a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them. I've been ...
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Dimension of Encryption of a linearly dependent set of plaintexts

Suppose I have an encryption scheme of the form $ E(P)=C $ where $P$ is the plaintext and belongs in $\{0,1\}^N$, $C$ the ciphertext which belongs to $\{0,1\}^M$ and the encryption is performed under ...
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311 views

Encryption scheme with equivalent keys?

I've long been looking for a symmetric encryption scheme (or algorithm) with equivalent keys. Let me define what I want: Symmetric encryption algorithm with encryption function $E_k$ and inverse ...
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638 views

Why RSA can't handle numbers above 76?

I'm going to encrypt the characters Zhu, and decrypt them using RSA. I'm using the public key $\{e, n\}$ and private key $\{d, n\}$. The values of $e$, $d$ and $p$ ...
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How to decrypt AES in CBC

i am having problems understanding how CBC works! I know that it is a chain and the IV is XORed with the PT but then what? I mean we encrypt it with key k and the result is the CT which we use for the ...
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Calculating the inverse modularity of the determinant for Hill cipher

I'm trying to decrypt a message encrypted with Hill Cipher, but I don't understand how to find the determinant so it solves the equation $det * 1/det = 1 mod 26$. The determinant for my key matrix is ...
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Stretching passwords for encrypting small files

I would like to know how to store a sensitive file; a credential of sorts. I want to password-protect it, obviously. It would be appropriate - in my application - to prompt the user for the password ...
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Is TOTP or a timestamp encryption a better timestamp-based authentication token system?

Are there advantages to using TOTP over encrypting a timestamp with a shared secret, in cases where the readability or ease of typing the token are not important?
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How will Cryptography be changed by Quantum Computing?

I realise this isn't a 'yes or no' question, and I apologise for asking something that could be seen as a discussion thread, but I had to ask. I'm currently doing an EPQ in CS (specifically how QC ...
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How to encrypt data and know it will be secure for at least a few decades?

I want to encrypt a small amount (few kilobytes) of data and be fairly confident it will be secure against brute force decryption and advances in cryptanalysis for at least a a few decades (or more). ...
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Is this a good way to encrypt a file?

I need to encrypt a file, distribute it over an insecure channel, and decrypt it later. Using a symmetric-key algorithm. Here's what I intend to do: Get a password P from the user. Generate a 16-byte ...
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Is there a way to make RC4 (ARCFOUR) secure, or is it completely broken?

I need a method to authenticate a process with another in order to establish interprocess communication between them, to prevent malicious processes from trying to hook onto the system. Currently I ...
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How to submit a new method of encryption?

I came up with a truly new method of applying modulo-2-addition encryption function in stream ciphers which is inspired by a mechanism used to prove a mathematical theorem. How can I determine whether ...
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Is it OK to use a data-encryption key for key wrapping, too?

Our industry (area of cheap networked devices) has a standard that defines the usage of keys for both authentication and encryption using EAX mode of AES. This standard does not define key management, ...
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What is the effect of the different AES key lengths?

How does a changing key length affects the ciphertext, not only in case of AES, but in general? I know that the key spaces become much larger and the number of rounds in case of AES changes, but is ...
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705 views

Difference in one time key and one time pad and many time key

These terms are confusing me. One time pad is when you use one key for one message. That is what One time key is. Secondly, what is the connection of many time key, can i use one time pad many ...
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Can I use PBKDF2 for authentication and decryption?

I want to store a hash for authenticating a password. I also want to use the same password for decryption. Can I use PBKDF2 for both? (I plan to use different salts for the authentication and the ...
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1answer
549 views

How to implement order preserving encryption or order preserving hashing [closed]

Does anybody know any free implementation of either order preserving encryption or order preserving hashing? I've found some codes like CMPH but I need to dynamically add new DATA and that's why most ...
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436 views

What is the actual difference between security through obscurity and true encryption?

In an abstract sense, aren't both the same? Don't their definitions boil down to the following? security through obscurity: trying to make sure some information cannot be obtained without knowing ...
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Digital Certificate Chain Verification

Does a certificate contain the complete chain of all certificates up to the trusted root certificate, or does the program that verifies certificates have to fetch each parent certificate individually ...
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AES CCM vs CCMP

Are the terms AES CCM and AES CCMP are equivalent, or is there any technical differences between the two?
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Which block cipher modes of operation allow a predictable IV?

Recently I found out that in the modes CBC and PCBC the IV may be passed in cleartext but never must be predictable. However for this part of my app I rather have the IV be predictable and unique ...