Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphertext back into plaintext, using the key.

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What is Attribute Based Encryption?

Can someone explain what attribute based encryption is? I was searching for a book or something that can help me in this regard but so far I have found none. Google also returns practically nothing ...
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Using a Non-Random IV with modes other than CBC

The weakness CWE-329 is an interesting problem with CBC mode. However, does this same weakness affect the other modes of operation that rely upon an IV such as: PCBC, CFB and OFB? My gut feeling is, ...
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AES CTR with similar IVs and same key

Lets say there is a piece of software that uses AES CTR to encrypt different messages using the same key but with slightly different IVs So for example, a 16 byte IV, the 2nd 8 bytes are always the ...
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What are the details of the DES weakness of reusing the same IV in CBC mode with the same key?

I think I once faced the recommendation, that the initialization vector should always be random and never be used twice with the same key. How serious is this weakness? Also, is AES less effected ...
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Can an encryption method be used as a hash function?

As I understand, there are a few requirements for a good hash function. Hard to find any message from a given hash Hard to find any 2 messages which give the same hash A single bit change in the ...
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Encrypting files with known headers

If I encrypt a file of a known format that has a lengthy header (e.g. an XML Excel file), does that render the encrypted file susceptible to a "known plain text" attack? In other words, if the first ...
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The exact difference between a permutation and a substitution

I've noticed confusing definitions about permutation and substitution, preventing to make the difference. A permutation changes the order of distincts elements of a set, but this can be writen as a ...
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What advantage does facebook's new encrypted access_token have?

When a user on facebook grants an app access to their account, an API key is issued to the app. This key is app and user-specific. This process is described in Facebook's developer documentation. ...
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Why is it OK for secretbox to leak the message length?

Most block cipher implementations expect users to pad so that the message matches the cipher block size. I understand the purpose of the padding is to make the input match the cipher block size. It ...
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Is it possible to get an RSA encryption key by comparing the unencrypted and encrypted file?

Exactly what the title says. If I have a RSA encrypted file, and the exact same file but decrypted, can I tell the key that was used from that information?
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Using the same RSA keypair to sign and encrypt

The RSA signature operation is basically the same as encrypting with the private key. In particular, both operations use the same kind of keys. Is it safe to use the same RSA keypair both for ...
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AES and perfect ciphers

I'm taking a crypto class this semester and after learning the definition of a perfect cipher. I started wondering how this definition applies to AES. Obviously AES isn't a perfect cipher, since the ...
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K out of N encryption

A friend just showed me how to combine padlocks to achieve a lock that opens when k out of n people turn their keys. I was ...
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Advanced Access Content System (AACS) and Subset Difference techniques for Broadcast Encryption

I'm trying to get a grasp on AACS and Subset Difference (archived version with images) for a project I'm working on and am having a hard time coming up with a technically valid layman explanation, let ...
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Is there a public key encryption scheme with optimal key size?

Symmetric encryption schemes such as AES have known security levels equal to their key sizes (i.e. breaking an encryption with an $n$ bit key needs about $2^n$ work steps). Elliptic curve encryption ...
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Is the Couvreur et al. polynomial time attack on McEliece practical?

There's a new e-print out on arXiv titled "A Polynomial Time Attack against Algebraic Geometry Code Based Public Key Cryptosystems" by Alain Couvreur, Irene Márquez-Corbella and Ruud Pellikaan: ...
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Voting scheme where the votes become public when a threshold is reached

Does there exist a voting scheme where voters cast private encrypted votes that automatically become public only after the threshold number of votes is cast? It needs to be done without a central ...
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Is it possible to make time-locked encrytion algorithm?

I'm not sure if what I'm asking is even a valid question but here goes. Would it be possible to add a mechanism to an encryption algorithm that would mean it had to be a certain time of the day or a ...
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Is this encryption algorithm build from MD5 secure?

I'm being asked to use an encryption algorithm in my code, and besides the fact that I'm sure there will be implementation faults that lead to vulnerabilities, I also have concerns about the algorithm ...
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What is stopping someone from saving encrypted info, and decoding it later?

When I send encrypted data to a website, using public key encryption, what is stopping someone who is listening from storing my encrypted data, and decryption it in a few years after they have ...
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Switching between AES and a highly performant algorithm

I want to de/encrypt several binary files rather frequently on a normally battery-powered device. My goal is to use AES-256 when the device is AC-powered and a highly performant algorithm when it's ...
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Is Blowfish strong enough for VPN encryption?

I'm looking at an OpenVPN connection between two sites configured to use 128 bit Blowfish in CBC mode, and trying to figure out how to assess the strength, but I just don't know enough of the maths. ...
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How is the One Time Pad (OTP) perfectly secure?

The Wikipedia entry on One Time Pads (OTPs) states that if this cipher is used properly; ie, the keys are truly random and each "part" of the key is independent of every other "part", it's ...
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Advantages using Diffie-Hellman or ElGamal

For what kind of usage should we prefer using Diffie-Hellman in order to exchange keys instead of ElGamal, and most important why should we use one or the other? I do not see a clear difference ...
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Will varying plaintext compensate for a fixed initialisation vector?

This is a follow-up question to Relative merits of AES ECB and CBC modes for securing data at rest. I need to store encrypted Personal Account Numbers (PANs) in a database. The only encryption option ...
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Exchanging encrypted messages, and decrypting without a public key?

I know very little about encryption, but I was hoping someone could shed light on this cipher text exchange scheme I worked out in my head this morning: Bob wants to send Alice a message but doesn't ...
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Practical necessity of semantic security under chosen plain text attack (CPA) in CBC mode

I was not able to understand why we practically need a CPA security in Cipher Block Chaining. (which insist on having a random IV), let say if the encryption is not CPA secure i.e , the adversary can ...
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How does the key schedule of Rijndael looks for keysizes other than 128 bit?

It said in Wikipedia that: [....] Rijndael can be specified with block and key sizes in any multiple of 32 bits, with a minimum of 128 bits. The blocksize has a maximum of 256 bits, but the ...
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At what point can you you implement crypto algorithms?

First off, this feels like it should be a common question, so I'm sorry if I've missed an older thread. Note that in my question, I'm talking about "implementing AES" rather than "designing AES2" or ...
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Does frequent key change weaken encryption?

Following scenario: We are using OTR for communication between Alice and Bob which means after each successfull message exchange a re-keying happens for both parties leading to new AES-keys for the ...
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Low Public Exponent Attack for RSA

I'm having trouble understanding the algorithm for finding the original message $m$, when there is a small public exponent. Here is the example I'm trying to follow (you can also read it in the 'Low ...
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Avalanche effect in DES

I couldn't understand the avalanche effect in DES. Could someone explain how avalanche effect happens in DES
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Encrypting and obscuring data between site/user without SSL

Im trying to figure out what the best way to encrypt data sent between a webpage and the user(both ways) is, when hosted in an environment that doesn't support SSL. The purpose of encryption would be ...
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Rely on NSA Suite B Cryptography?

NSA's Suite B Cryptography suggests some cryptographic algorithms for encryption, digital signatures, message digests and key agreements. The selected algorithms and their key size are suggested by ...
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Why are cryptography algorithms not exported to certain countries?

There have been strict laws about the export of crypto software to certain countries. I can understand the intent, but never gauged the fact that there is nothing stopping these countries from ...
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Generating Encryption Keys from Biometric Fingerprint Templates

How would one go about generating Encryption Keys from Biometric Fingerprint Templates extracted from a fingerprint using either Griaule SDK or DigitalPersona SDK or any other SDK that will return the ...
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How does Clifford Cocks 'Non-Secret Encryption' work?

I have read Clifford Cocks "A Note on 'Non-secret Encryption'" and thought I would try to implement this, but I don't seem to be able to get it to work. I'm obviously missing something. From the ...
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Encrypting 8 times with 8-bit key beneficial?

I was trying to understand cryptography from the book Information Security by Mark Stamp and I am confused by something. Suppose that Alice has a secure block cipher, but the cipher only uses an ...
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Is there a cryptographic function or system in which it becomes HARDER to break as time passes?

Is there a function or system which is time depending in which the effort required to brute force the decryption increases with time? It is easy to break encryption from many years ago because ...
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How do other, non-RSA algorithms, compare to the PKCS #1 standard?

Arguably the PKCS suite of standards have a profit-oriented bias as they are promoted by RSA and promote their algorithms over others in the form of RFCs and other means. I'm considering the ...
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ElGamal in a different group

Can Elgamal be secure in $\bmod {n^2}$? Meaning instead of using a prime order group to use a group where DCR assumption holds?
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Dancing confusion with Daniel J. Bernstein's stream ciphers

I know of Salsa20 which won the ESTREAM competition. This is dated of 25 Dec 2007. There is also the ChaCha20 stream cipher (cr.yp.to/chacha.html). This claims to increase the amount of diffusion ...
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Knowing pre-encryption data, can we find the private key CryptoLocker used?

One of our users seems to have been hit by CryptoLocker. As a result, he has a hard drive full of encrypted files. The ransom-ware claims to have used public key encryption on the files. If we know ...
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How to turn adversary against encryption of zeroes into adversary against random bits?

I recently read the article Nonce-Based Symmetric Encryption by Rogaway, where he presents two different notions of indistinguishability, which he calls ind$ and ind, respectively. Here's the ...
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Creating an encryption key from several other keys and using hash functions

I want to combine two or more keys to create a single encryption key that relies on all of them. What is the proper method for doing that? Simple XOR? Using hash functions? Something else? I ...
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CBC key lifetime, or, “how big is too big?”

IPSec recommends rekeying SA's figuring in both time and amount of data sent. Even when using AES-256 in CBC mode, the key and IV commonly get re-negotiated after 100MB. My case isn't using IPSec, ...
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Generating a key to use with AES

I'm going paperless, and I want to encrypt the documents that I scan. I'd like to use CommonCrypto to perform AES-XTS encryption on each file. I'm a software engineer, and I like the idea of being ...
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A self-decrypting block-cipher

If I have a block-cipher like for example AES, a plaintext $x$, we use different function to encrypt and decrypt : $\text{encrypt}(x) = y$ , $\text{decrypt}(y)=x$. Now, if we build a function with a ...
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K friedman - two texts explanation

I have a question, I read the k friedman test to determine the period of a vigenere cipher text, and I understand something like this: Friedman's K test tries to find out what period of the cipher by ...
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Encrypting or HMACing password digests

Assuming I'm using bcrypt to digest passwords, is any additional security gained by either encrypting or HMACing the resulting digests? By requiring a key to compare password hashes, I would expect ...