Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphertext back into plaintext, using the key.

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Which is better? Serialize and then encrypt or Encrypt and then Serialize

Let say in a simple Java program, Considering all the facts, like security and performance, Which is the best way to follow. I tried searching for a answer but proper answer is not out there.
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How do we measure number of possible encryptions in One Time Pad [duplicate]

trying to brute force a specific length of ciphered pad, how do we measure the total number of possible encryptions in One Time Pad
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Is there a scheme where two cipher texts can be proven to have the same (unencrypted) content?

Is there a scheme where two ciphertexts (encrypted with different keys) can be proven to have the same (plaintext) content without disclosing the plaintext or any private keys? I assume that the ...
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How to prove that a SKE scheme is IND-CPA secure

There's an IND-CPA SKE scheme 1 $(\mathsf{Gen}, \mathsf{Enc}, \mathsf{Dec})$. Scheme 2 is defined as $(\mathsf{Gen}', \mathsf{Enc}', \mathsf{Dec}')$, where $\mathsf{Gen}' = \mathsf{Gen}$, ...
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on broadcast encryption

I've read the following paper and have one question on it. M. Luby and J. Staddon, "Combinatorial Bounds for Broadcast Encryption", EUROCRYPT'98. On page 523 (12th page of the paper) the authors say ...
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Key material leak from initialized cipher?

Let's imagine that cipher (say AES256 in CBC mode) is initialized when application starts: ...
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Leading 00 in RSA public/private key file

I found these following values ALWAYS have the leading 00 in public/private key, public key: modulus private key: modulus, p,q, d mod (p-1), d mod (q-1), coefficient e.g., modulus ...
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Are all encryption tools made equal?

I'd like to encrypt work-related data backups stored on an external drive. The backups contain proprietary company information and trade secrets. My current backup program, Comodo Backup, allows me ...
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Relationship between exponent and modulus in RSA (as RSA properties as listed in X.509)

In one of my assignments, I had the following question (Please read on. Not a homework assignment :) ): X.509 (1998 version) lists properties that RSA keys must satisfy to be secure. One such ...
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Grouping in BGN

The below equation is mentioned in Homomorphic Encryption and the BGN Cryptosystem (pdf, page 4): Mult(pk, $C_1$, $C_2$): Choose $u \xleftarrow{R} [1, n]$ and output $D = \hat{e}(C_1, C_2) \cdot ...
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Calculating Phi(M) and D for RSA decryption given p,q,e

I've been given a message in 4 digit numbers but it doesn't seem to work when I use my calculated values for phi(m) and d. If I'm correct phi(m) = (p-1)(q-1) correct? And d is given by ed = ...
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142 views

Encryption that can only be decrypted once?

I want to encrypt a message so that it can only be decrypted once. I know that we can use nonces to do this when we exchange data over a communication channel, but in my case the cipher text will be ...
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Does complicating a flawed algorithm make it secure?

It's a basic question I guess, but I don't know the answer and I don't think that anyone asked it. Suppose I built a system, it relies on MD5 for security, suddenly I read am article on how easy are ...
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Which precautions to protect against side-channel attacks on ARX ciphers?

In recent crypto there has been a trend to design ciphers using only the ARX set of instructions - i.e. additions (modulo $2^{32}$ or $2^{64}$), rotations (by a fixed constant) and XORs, examples ...
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Prevent replay attack without storage

I am designing a set of low-power sensing motes. Each mote will communicate to a central base over RF. I want the mote to be able to authenticate itself with the base, and send its data without being ...
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81 views

Why is RSA encryption version 1.0 not specified in an RFC?

I saw that there are three RSA encryption versions, as follows: RSA encryption version 1.5 (RFC 2313) RSA cryptography specification version 2.0 (RFC 2347) RSA cryptography specification version 2.1 ...
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Encrypted vs unencrypted digital signatures [duplicate]

Is there a difference in terms of security between An encrypted stream of bits obtained by encrypting a plaintext concatenated with it's signature $ C = E_k(plaintext||\sigma)$ where $E$ is a ...
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128 views

Cracking passwords with more than 10 characters in a few hours?

I came across this article from 2 years ago: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2331984/Think-strong-password-Hackers-crack-16-character-passwords-hour.html They're describing how a team ...
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How to decrypt RSA cipher text? [closed]

How can I decrypt an RSA cipher text in which I am only provided with a public key and the cipher text. The person who encrypted it made a mistake in taking the exponent.
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How to calculate LOW(b) and HIGH(b) in spritz cryptography

I try to implement spritz cryptography like this paper . But I don't know how to calculate LOW(b) and HIGH(b). In paper page 7. ...
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2answers
166 views

Is there an algorithm to hide text in another text, while preserving the meaning of the latter?

Is there a way to hide a text message $A$ inside another text $B$ using a cryptographic cipher/algorithm, while preserving the sense/meaning of $B$ and without anybody being able to notice there is a ...
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21 views

EC algorithm to derive bits/keys and sign/verify [duplicate]

Looking at the question “ECDSA vs ECIES vs ECDH” it appears that you can either have a tool that can derive keys or bits, or can be used to sign and verify something. Is there an EC way to do both ...
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Is it safe to generate ECDSA keys from the hash of the previous, over and over again?

I have memorized a very long and secure passphrase, that when hashed with sha256, I can use the result as an ECDSA private key, and use it as a brain-address for Bitcoin. Now I need more bitcoin ...
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Is it possible to reduce the size of an RSA key?

The details about what an RSA key is made up of are explained succinctly here. Is it possible to reduce the amount of data that's usually packaged with the (private) key and then derive it later?
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how to decrypt hidden text under numbers? [closed]

got a question as follows - how to decrypt below in to letters knowing that crypting language is 469 and it base ofcourse on mathematic. 46781! 9063376290 3222011 677 80322429 67538 14805394, 6880326 ...
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A self-decrypting block-cipher

If I have a block-cipher like for example AES, a plaintext $x$, we use different function to encrypt and decrypt : $\text{encrypt}(x) = y$ , $\text{decrypt}(y)=x$. Now, if we build a function with a ...
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KFB mode - key feedback

Please, could someone explain to me how the Key feedback mode (KFB) mode works and what the IV in output block stands for? And what properties does the "constant input" has to provide? Should it be ...
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1answer
86 views

Single bit error in CBC

Why does a single bit error when using the CBC block cipher mode of operation affect the decryption of a block (Oj) with a probabilty of 50%? And in the following block, why is the one bit error in ...
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Are EC public/private keys significantly weakened by having a known byte?

I would like to use different EC keys for different purposes in an app, and I would like to easily see the purpose for which particular key (pair) was generated. With ~65K attempts, I can generate a ...
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Unknown authenticated encryption mode

I'm running through a protocol specification (LoRaWAN, pdf), and I'm puzzled by the crypto. The data is encrypted and authenticated in the following way: a unique 128-bit key is used; the plaintext ...
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Symmetric encryption with compression for MySQL DB data

I would like to compress data before encrypting and storing it in a MySQL DB to reduce especially bandwith requirements (compression reduces bandwith by 70-80%). At present, all is handled by a ...
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Having doubt in Rijndael Algorithm- coding for decryption

I am doing a project on the Rijndael Algorithm. I have already written the encryption code which produces the correct output. Now I want to implement decryption as well. I'm doing using VHDL, ...
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How were semagrams encrypted in the pre-digital era?

Historically messages in languages that use alphabets have been encrypted manually according to some kind of algorithm (e.g. mono- and poly-alphabetic ciphers). But how wew messages encrypted in a ...
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Double randomised HMAC verification to prevent timing attack

A way to prevent timing attacks for hash string comparison is to perform additional HMAC signing in order to randomize the verification process (see Double HMAC Verification). In addition to the ...
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One Time Pads and reuse of the decrypted message?

How is it insecure when Alice encrypts a message with a One-Time-Pad to Bob, and Bob then uses the decrypted message from Alice as the next One-Time-Pad? For example: Alice sends Bob a message ...
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Symmetric-like cyphers with several steps

Are there any good symmetric-ish cyphers that involve three or more steps with independent key material for each step? Formally, there should be a function $K(s)$ that returns a tuple $(k_1,..,k_n)$ ...
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Re-sending captured encrypted data

Let’s assume Bob is some algorithmic stock trading machine. Bob takes commands from Alice, who sends messages to Bob. For example: Alice could be sending a message to Bob to stop trading. But if ...
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79 views

Galois Field ($2^{16}$) for encryption in place of $GF(2^8)$ in AES

AES algorithm is using $GF(2^8)$ Galois Field. What if we use $GF(2^{16})$ in place of $GF(2^8)$? Will this improve the algorithm or not?
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How to compromise the privacy of NaCl encrypted messages, when nonce is reused?

I want to know to how break NaCl encryption when a nonce used more than once for a given key private key. According to PyNaCl docs: It is VITALLY important that the nonce is a nonce, i.e. it is a ...
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Carrying out a known-plaintext attack on a cipher [closed]

Previously posted here. Someone suggested I could post it here to get some answers. I am trying to solve a CTF challenge, here. Basically we're given message and key inputs to a cipher and its ...
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HMAC-SHA256 on large data files

I currently need to encrypt large files (video, over 6 Gbytes) for our customers. To ensure authenticity and integrity, we chose HMAC-256 as we already use it in our internal messaging system. But ...
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What is the most secure encryption algorithm to encrypt my password database?

The password manager I use lets me choose an algorithm from the list below in order to encrypt my password database: Microsoft Base Cryptographic Provider v1.0: RC2-128 RC4-128 DES-56 3DES TWO ...
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Is there an existing cryptography algorithm / method that both encrypts AND compresses text?

So I'm trying to find a method of encryption that not only obfuscates text, but also compresses the result. For example, if I encrypted ninechars, the ideal result ...
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SSL implementation in windows? [closed]

SSL (Secure Socket Layer). windows Webbroswers ( Chrome, Mozilla, Edge, explorer ) are using which winapi set to Encrypt and Decrypt Data. SSL is asymmetric encryption. So which Api set is being used ...
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64 views

Output of using the same key in all 3 boxes of 3DES

I am trying to figure this one out: What would be the encrypted output for an input x if the same key K is used in all three boxes of 3DES? The encryption scheme for 3DES with three different keys, ...
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How to overcome issues with big ciphers? E.g. with small vs. big Vigenére Ciphers

I understand that bigger ciphers show more recurring patterns and therefore should be easier (or at least faster) to decrypt as you'll have a better statistical analysis, being However if we use a ...
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Need help implementing key management scheme

Scheme has following requirements Client application should perform encryption/decryption using component 1, component 2 and ZPK (zone PIN key. Client should get this key from host in encrypted ...
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Why is it OK for secretbox to leak the message length?

Most block cipher implementations expect users to pad so that the message matches the cipher block size. I understand the purpose of the padding is to make the input match the cipher block size. It ...
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Is there a difference between asking for a signature and asking for a decryption in challenge-response authentication?

Consider the following two authentication schemes. In both cases the server knows a public key of the client (for a signature system in the first and an encryption system in the second case). Scheme ...
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AES/DES question about determine a key

I have a question. If you receive a DES encrypted message for which you would NOT recognize the plaintext if it were decrypted, is there any way to potentially determine the key if all keys are ...