Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key.

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Diffie-Hellman for Encryption

In learning how DH works for cryptography applications, I'm coming across some confusing language. For starters, most of the time DH is discussed in the context of "generating" their shared secret. ...
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Encryption of small messages

Some time ago, I asked how to encrypt small messages like e.g., four decimal digit numbers (banking PINs). I've got my answer, but also a warning like it makes no sense as it's easy to guess: Even ...
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How does redundancy in a file effects performance and security of encryption?

Does redundancy in a file or data effect performance and security of encryption? (for example for AES, if not for general case) Is it easier to encrypt something that has high redundancy or something ...
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274 views

AES block cipher modes of operation

have a project in which I have to implement an en/de-cryption structure using a standard AES block of 128-bits in VHDL and I think I'm a bit confused. So I'd like to ask some questions about AES and ...
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155 views

How would I make a secret notation alphabet more secure?

Disclaimer: I was looking for a place to ask this question on SE and this site seems to be the most fitting. If this question doesn't belong here, feel free to redirect me. Just out of boredom and ...
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158 views

Is the polynomial reconstruction problem really “intractable”?

In the family of the believed (experts haven't come yet with a solution) intractable problems in cryptography belongs the Polynomial Reconstruction problem in which an attacker is given $n$ points in ...
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Encrypted counter as IV in CBC mode encryption using same key

I'm currently working with a secure transport protocol that defines the IV to be a counter (incremental nonce) to be encrypted with the same key. This is a followup to a protocol that did not provide ...
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545 views

What is U2FsdGVkX1?

Using CryptoJS 3.1 I noticed that using 3Des, the encrypted message always start with U2FsdGVkX1 Why is the first part of the encryption always the same? What information does this hold and ...
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784 views

How do I decrypt ciphertext with this cipher?

I have an encryption function $$E(p) = (ap + b) \mod{26}$$ where the parameters are $a=7$, $b = 10$, and $p$ is the plaintext letter. I was asked to decrypt the ciphertext ...
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222 views

Alternatives to HMAC + CBC?

I'm looking at using HMAC + CBC. The combination looks like this: ciphertext = AES256(text, k1) data = HMAC-SHA256(iv | ciphertext, k2) | iv | ciphertext Where: ...
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218 views

How to compute the dot product on encrypted values?

Is there a practical homomorphic encryption scheme that can give reasonable execution time results in computing a dot product: $$a_1*b_1 + a_2*b_2 +a_3*b_3 +\ldots+ a_n*b_n$$ I imagine the scheme will ...
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236 views

Is there a way to use Shamir Secret Sharing with updatable data?

I want to divide a system that maintains these properties, based on Shamir's Secret Sharing: A secret key is split up to N pieces, where T of them are enough to reconstruct the key. The original key ...
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181 views

Low complexity implementation of a small blocksize cipher (< 64 bit)

Searching for "small blocksize cipher" finds a number of discussions on the topic, mostly refering to FPE. This one in particular suggests using AES as the round function of a Feistel network. The ...
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308 views

Visualization of cryptography

I think CrypTool is great software. And what I find most useful in it is visualization of algorithms such as Caesar, Vigenere, AES, DES. And my question is: does anyone know other tools which are ...
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261 views

Can I save space for short messages by using encryption with private key instead of a signature?

Let's say I have a message, a Private Key and a Public Key. Normally if you want to see if the message is unaltered and is from the sender you would have the message part + signature part, which you ...
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4k views

FIPS 140-2 Compliant Algorithms

Is there any reference to check the list of encryption & signing algorithms which are compliant to FIPS 140-2. After an exhaustive search I could find only "AES". Any suggestions would be much ...
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58 views

Compression step of PGP

We do compression in PGP. Does this step increase/decrease or either have any effect regarding the authentication of a message?
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116 views

Why is $-1$ an illegal message in the Goldwasser-Micali Encryption Scheme

I'm not sure why in the Goldwasser-Micali encryption scheme with a Blum integer $N$, the message $-1$ is always a illegal message. Can you give me some direction for starting? What is illegal ...
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112 views

How to compute the attacker's probability?

Given a random bit string $R=r_1r_2\cdots r_n$, let us encrypt each bit $c_i=E(r_i,k_i)$ where $k_i$ is taken from the stream of encryption keys. Suppose that an attacker can guess the correct $r_i$ ...
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OpenSSL AES 256-bit Key Management

I am using C and OpenSSL to encrypt files. After experimenting with the OpenSSL command line utility, it makes you enter a passphrase that can be any length, but uses that to create a 256-bit key. ...
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247 views

Can you identify the public key used to encrypt something?

If I encrypt a string with a public key, does the encrypted ciphertext reveal the public key I used to encrypt it? Basically, I don't want anyone to know who the ciphertext is addressed to. I'm ...
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132 views

GPG and PAR2 error correction data from the plain archive, will it compromise security?

I have the following scenario: Archives compressed with 7z, hundreds of MiB in size GPG to encrypt the archives (binary, without ASCII armor) PAR2 to create error correction data Question 1. ...
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662 views

A single password manager vs password generator/hash

I have been wondering about the options available for managing passwords. However, they all seem to fail if the master password is compromised (which isn't a big surprise). On one hand you have ...
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381 views

How much extra information is in an RSA public key?

I'm trying to calculate the size of an RSA public key in Ruby. I've retrieved the key in PEM format, and once I've decoded the base64 part from the PEM format, I get the size in bytes. What I find is ...
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2k views

Advantage of AES(Rijndael) over Twofish and Serpent

I'm trying to figure out a suitable encryption technique and after reading a bit, I figured the current AES 128-bit encryption is suitable for what I'm trying to do. However, this is more due to the ...
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251 views

Generating a cryptographically secure, many-time use, symmetric encryption key

I need to generate a 256 bit encryption key described by the adjectives in the title. Currently I intend to create the key using this RNG. Is this a secure manner of creating the key, given that it ...
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171 views

Does hash_df use binary or an ASCII hexadecimal representation for numbers to be passed to the hash function?

I'm implementing the HASH_DRBG algorithm. As per NIST-SP800 90 document for HASH DRBG Generation, section 10.4.1 "Derivation Function Using a Hash Function (Hash_df)", the Hash_df algorithm contains ...
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Key-dependent encryption in TAHOE-LAFS

TAHOE-LAFS uses a form of "key-dependent encryption", in that a private key SK is encrypted with the truncated hash of the private key: ...
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80 views

What is a Message Transmission Scheme?

I've been given as an exercise to show an encryption scheme that is CCA-secure but is not a secure message transmission scheme. What is a message transmission scheme, and how does it differ from a ...
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258 views

Elliptic Curve Encryption Ciphertext Size

I'd like to know how much bigger is the ciphertext when encrypting a message using ECC encrytpion? ECIES (or ElGamal)
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310 views

Security of authenticated encryption modes gcm & ccm

I have two questions for Clarification for AE mode choice criteria GCM : it appears to be actually the most popular and widely used AE mode of operation. however it is also well-known to be highly ...
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268 views

Is it possible to anonymize web traffic so that the IP Address cannot be determined while still being able to determine distinct IPs?

I'd like to find a way to anonymize IP addresses in web logs to ensure user privacy given the following requirements: If given an IP address, there is no way to look up which requests came from the ...
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664 views

Secure encrypt-then-sign with RSA

I understand that when you want to encrypt and sign data with RSA the generally recommended approach is sign-then-encrypt. However, I have encrypted data that I need to sign, to prove the author of ...
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implementing long term archive encryption

Let's say I want to create private archives for the long term (e.g. more than 30 ). The archives' sizes could be anywhere from 1 GB to 30 GB. As far as I understand I could go down two ways: The ...
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201 views

CPA Secure Chosen plaintext scheme

The example for IND-CPA secure schemes given is generally: for a random r, Enc_k(m) =(r|| E_k(r) XOR m) where E is a PRF But does the role of r and k really matter--i.e. isn't this equally ...
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Can ElGamal encryption and ElGamal signatures be used together sharing the same key-pairs?

I'm working on a encryption system where each party can store exactly a single ElGamal private key in a device. This is a hardware limit. The system must be expanded to support signatures and ...
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320 views

Is this a good way to encrypt a file?

I need to encrypt a file, distribute it over an insecure channel, and decrypt it later. Using a symmetric-key algorithm. Here's what I intend to do: Get a password P from the user. Generate a 16-byte ...
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242 views

Decode message $m = p * q$, where $p ^ 5 \bmod N$, $q ^ 5 \bmod N$ and $N$ are known

I been going through some cryptography exercises and stumbled across this problem. Discover message $m$. You know that $m = p * q$. Also $p ^ 5 \bmod N$, $q ^ 5 \bmod N$ and $N$ are known ...
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Determine the Key given ciphertexts and plaintexts?

Given two sets of plaintexts and their corresponding ciphertexts, how does one determine the key $K$? The ciphertexts are: $$C_1= (P_1 \oplus K_0) + K_1$$ and $$C_2= (P_2 \oplus K_0) + K_1$$ $K = ...
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iOS Data Protection: What is the Input of the LFSR?

Every time a file on the data partition is created, Data Protection creates a new 256-bit key (the “per-file” key) and gives it to the hardware AES engine, which uses the key to encrypt the ...
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223 views

Is there a field guide to ECC for the IT Security layman?

I'm trying to understand ECC from an IT layman's perspective and am trying to separate the theory from the standards, and understand why certain features are implemented or not implemented in the ...
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Distinguish messages

Since i cannot comment on questions, I give my own: If a secret key encrypt algorithm can encrypt messages of arbitrary length and the encrypt algorithm is probabilistic then: suppose the adversary ...
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753 views

Perfect security definitions

In my notes, there are 2 definitions of perfect security: "For $M \in \{0,1\}^m$, define the distribution $D_M$ on strings as follows: to choose a random member of $D_M$, choose a random $K \in ...
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300 views

Encryption scheme with equivalent keys?

I've long been looking for a symmetric encryption scheme (or algorithm) with equivalent keys. Let me define what I want: Symmetric encryption algorithm with encryption function $E_k$ and inverse ...
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1answer
167 views

Safely use CryptSignAndEncryptMessage?

I am developing an application that sends messages which I want to encrypt and sign. The CryptoApi offers a function called CryptSignAndEncryptMessage. The description says, what this function ...
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186 views

Calculating amount of time for brute forcing ciphertext depending on the size of the key

I am a graphic design student and for my information graphic project I have chosen the topic of the history of encryption and how the security level developed over the centuries. It’s basically an ...
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Increasing the diffusion of the AES-CBC encryption algorithm in pycrypto for python

When encryption is done using the AES-CBC algorithm, the encryption can be thought of as chaining the cipher texts with the previous ones and an IV. However, if its on CBC mode, we give our cipher ...
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Which encryption method supports random reads?

I have a file containing 16-bit samples and I want to encrypt it, but the problem is that I need to be able to read any random 16-bit value from the file, and be to able to decrypt it, without reading ...
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Using single EC cert/keying material to derive symmetric encryption key (for storage)?

The situation involves a single party (single certificate) who would want to AES encrypt a file that they can later decrypt. Assume the EC certificate + EC keys have a purpose i.e. "File encryption" ...
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MD5 encryption in Windows batch script [closed]

I am making a script in Windows batch to have a registration and login system that stores the passwords in a SQL database using SQLite. I need a command line MD5 encryption program to encrypt the ...