Encryption is the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphertext back into plaintext, using the key.

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Key-dependent encryption in TAHOE-LAFS

TAHOE-LAFS uses a form of "key-dependent encryption", in that a private key SK is encrypted with the truncated hash of the private key: ...
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Best way to get 32 bytes from PBKDF2

Use the PBKDF2 output as an HMAC key, hashing two different inputs - once for 20 bytes and once for 12 : ...
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122 views

What is a Message Transmission Scheme?

I've been given as an exercise to show an encryption scheme that is CCA-secure but is not a secure message transmission scheme. What is a message transmission scheme, and how does it differ from a ...
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483 views

Elliptic Curve Encryption Ciphertext Size

I'd like to know how much bigger is the ciphertext when encrypting a message using ECC encrytpion? ECIES (or ElGamal)
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2k views

RSA square and multiply

If an RSA encryption uses a modulus $n$ of 15000 bits and $e = 3$ or $e = 2^{16} + 1$, how many squarings and multiplications will we need for encryption, and for decryption? Could you please explain ...
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689 views

Security of authenticated encryption modes gcm & ccm

I have two questions for Clarification for AE mode choice criteria GCM : it appears to be actually the most popular and widely used AE mode of operation. however it is also well-known to be highly ...
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310 views

Is it possible to anonymize web traffic so that the IP Address cannot be determined while still being able to determine distinct IPs?

I'd like to find a way to anonymize IP addresses in web logs to ensure user privacy given the following requirements: If given an IP address, there is no way to look up which requests came from the ...
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154 views

implementing long term archive encryption

Let's say I want to create private archives for the long term (e.g. more than 30 ). The archives' sizes could be anywhere from 1 GB to 30 GB. As far as I understand I could go down two ways: The ...
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332 views

CPA Secure Chosen plaintext scheme

The example for IND-CPA secure schemes given is generally: for a random r, Enc_k(m) =(r|| E_k(r) XOR m) where E is a PRF But does the role of r and k really matter--i.e. isn't this equally ...
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393 views

Can ElGamal encryption and ElGamal signatures be used together sharing the same key-pairs?

I'm working on a encryption system where each party can store exactly a single ElGamal private key in a device. This is a hardware limit. The system must be expanded to support signatures and ...
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204 views

Is it OK to use a data-encryption key for key wrapping, too?

Our industry (area of cheap networked devices) has a standard that defines the usage of keys for both authentication and encryption using EAX mode of AES. This standard does not define key management, ...
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153 views

Can a secret message be securely transmitted within a MAC tag?

A sender wants to transmit an ultra secret code $M$ which could be either 'go', 'stop' or 'wait'. This could be any selection of code words really and adopted for any use such as transmitting short ...
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288 views

Efficient AES - Use of T-tables

I'm really in trouble! I'm trying to understand how the T-tables in AES encryption work. But I don't know if I get the point. What I understood is that they are used to reduce the whole computation of ...
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204 views

Why must IV be sent with each packet?

I was reading about Encrypt-then-MAC and everywhere I go it seems people include the IV with the ciphertext generated for each message then MAC that and send all the information concatenated. Why do ...
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248 views

Decode message $m = p * q$, where $p ^ 5 \bmod N$, $q ^ 5 \bmod N$ and $N$ are known

I been going through some cryptography exercises and stumbled across this problem. Discover message $m$. You know that $m = p * q$. Also $p ^ 5 \bmod N$, $q ^ 5 \bmod N$ and $N$ are known ...
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356 views

Calculating amount of time for brute forcing ciphertext depending on the size of the key

I am a graphic design student and for my information graphic project I have chosen the topic of the history of encryption and how the security level developed over the centuries. It’s basically an ...
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795 views

Determine the Key given ciphertexts and plaintexts?

Given two sets of plaintexts and their corresponding ciphertexts, how does one determine the key $K$? The ciphertexts are: $$C_1= (P_1 \oplus K_0) + K_1$$ and $$C_2= (P_2 \oplus K_0) + K_1$$ $K = ...
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243 views

iOS Data Protection: What is the Input of the LFSR?

Every time a file on the data partition is created, Data Protection creates a new 256-bit key (the “per-file” key) and gives it to the hardware AES engine, which uses the key to encrypt the ...
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270 views

Is there a field guide to ECC for the IT Security layman?

I'm trying to understand ECC from an IT layman's perspective and am trying to separate the theory from the standards, and understand why certain features are implemented or not implemented in the ...
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127 views

Distinguish messages

Since i cannot comment on questions, I give my own: If a secret key encrypt algorithm can encrypt messages of arbitrary length and the encrypt algorithm is probabilistic then: suppose the adversary ...
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365 views

Encryption scheme with equivalent keys?

I've long been looking for a symmetric encryption scheme (or algorithm) with equivalent keys. Let me define what I want: Symmetric encryption algorithm with encryption function $E_k$ and inverse ...
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218 views

Safely use CryptSignAndEncryptMessage?

I am developing an application that sends messages which I want to encrypt and sign. The CryptoApi offers a function called CryptSignAndEncryptMessage. The description says, what this function ...
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Managing data permissions/access through asymmetric cryptography

I want to manage authorization, as 3rd-party permissions, through asymmetric cryptography. I'm concerned about how is it possible to share access of encrypted data with N entities, and be able to ...
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119 views

Secure Deduplication and Encryption in a data store

Assume: We have a centralized data store that can store whatever we need Every user is online Function $f : File \to Key$ gets access to the store, and is the same for all users. $g : Key \to File$ ...
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Pseudo-Hadamard transform, most significant bit

For clarification: The Pseudo-Hadamard transformation is a reversible transformation of a bit string that provides cryptographic diffusion. Splitting a bit string (with bit length of $2n$) into two ...
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Paper about this secure P2P idea?

Two or three years ago, I was reading something interesting, but then I lost the paper. The paper described building secure and fast P2P networks (not like tor or I2P). Unfortunately, I only remember ...
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Increasing the diffusion of the AES-CBC encryption algorithm in pycrypto for python

When encryption is done using the AES-CBC algorithm, the encryption can be thought of as chaining the cipher texts with the previous ones and an IV. However, if its on CBC mode, we give our cipher ...
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Which encryption method supports random reads?

I have a file containing 16-bit samples and I want to encrypt it, but the problem is that I need to be able to read any random 16-bit value from the file, and be to able to decrypt it, without reading ...
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207 views

Using single EC cert/keying material to derive symmetric encryption key (for storage)?

The situation involves a single party (single certificate) who would want to AES encrypt a file that they can later decrypt. Assume the EC certificate + EC keys have a purpose i.e. "File encryption" ...
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910 views

MD5 encryption in Windows batch script [closed]

I am making a script in Windows batch to have a registration and login system that stores the passwords in a SQL database using SQLite. I need a command line MD5 encryption program to encrypt the ...
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263 views

Reordering non-block-aligned parts with DES in ECB mode

I was given a ciphertext file which was encrypted using DES in ECB mode. It is known that the plainttext that was encrypted has the following form: Each line of text consists of a payroll followed ...
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3answers
509 views

How to submit a new method of encryption?

I came up with a truly new method of applying modulo-2-addition encryption function in stream ciphers which is inspired by a mechanism used to prove a mathematical theorem. How can I determine whether ...
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How does one scale encryption strength upwards from 256-bit?

I have seen many examples of encryption up to about 256-bit. But how does one programmatically scale the logic upwards in a language such as PHP or Java to say 1024-bit or even 4096-bit and higher? ...
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Is python a secure programming language for cryptography?

I know Python is a powerful programming language but is it secure for cryptography? I mean is it possible to reverse engineer the program (written in python) and discover the algorithm of cryptography ...
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579 views

Encryption vs. decryption of same plaintext

Does the same encryption algorithm given the same plaintext always produces the same ciphertext? Does this cause any security flaws?
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Practical brute-force attack on 128 bit encryption

In brute-force attack calculations cryptographers say we should assume an attacker will find the key after $2^{(n/2)}$ tries. If n=128, then n/2=64. We know that this is practical (A 64 bit key is ...
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Could the Enigma algorithm be classified as a Feistel network?

The Enigma algorithm is a encryption method that was developed (I believe) by the Germans in WWII. It went a little something like this: When a letter was typed on the keyboard of the Enigma ...
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233 views

Which encryption method supports random reads?

I have a file containing 16-bit samples and I want to encrypt it, but the problem is that I need to be able to read any random 16-bit value from the file, and be to able to decrypt it, without reading ...
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1k views

why DES encryption uses different modes like ECB,OFB?

As without using modes we can also encrypt and decrypt data then what is the need of using modes in DES?
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Can hashing become encrypting?

hashing some data and encrypting data share some similar attributes. Surely this is why "Difference between encrypting something and hashing something" has been asked. The point of this question is ...
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What is the actual difference between security through obscurity and true encryption?

In an abstract sense, aren't both the same? Don't their definitions boil down to the following? security through obscurity: trying to make sure some information cannot be obtained without knowing ...
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Is my pseudo-random initialization vector secure?

How can I know if I am generating a secure pseudorandom initialization vector? Currently I am planning to generate a pseudo-random initialization Vector using current date and time - is this secure ...
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How do I generate a number for a lottery and later proves its existence

I want to create a lottery that works like this: I choose a secret number A in the range [0:999] and publish an object B. People must try to guess the number A to win. When somebody wins, I want to ...
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232 views

Choice of MAC and handling it correctly

I have recently learned that Encrypt-then-MAC is recommended when using symmetric encryption. I have two closely related questions related to that, which is why I am posting them as one: Looking ...
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what is the state of the art algorithm to encrypt credit card data

We have a business requirement to keep credit card data. What is today's (Nov 2013) state of the art algorithm to encrypt credit card data that will be saved on disk? Additionally, I'd appreciate ...
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Keys required for cryptography

I am reading an article on cryptography at following location: http://www.entrust.com/resources/pdf/cryptointro.pdf Historically, encryption systems used what is known as symmetric cryptography. ...
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1k views

One-time pad and zero key

I'm doing some exercises before my exam, and I am stuck with task number 4 in this file: http://www.cs.umd.edu/~jkatz/crypto/f10/hw1.pdf Could you help me with this task? When using the one-time ...
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How to encrypt a short string and keep the length secret

I need to encrypt relatively short strings (generally less than 100 characters). If possible, I want to avoid leaking the length of these strings. How can I do that? The thing that came to my mind is ...
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Trying to find a different DES encryption system explanation

I need a mathematical explanation of what does the DES encryption system really do. This means I need more explanation than the one that offers FIPS, which is more an explanation for computer ...
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decrypt numbers multiplied by a certain floating point number

A friend has about 10K numbers in a an excel sheet. He wanted to encrypt these numbers in order to share the file with a 3rd party that will help him reorganize the tables. What he did, to hide the ...