A cryptographic hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inputs with the same output, or reconstruct the input from the output.

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Digital Signature Scheme Count

My question is How I will be able to count digital signature Scheme that can sign many documents with one private key. There are signature scheme as long as exists private keys in the keys spaces? or ...
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319 views

Which MACs can be converted into a secure unkeyed hash function?

It is known that setting the secret key to a fixed, public value does not make MACs like CBC-MAC or GMAC into secure unkeyed cryptographic hash functions that could be used - for instance - for ...
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Difference between “one-way function” and “cryptographic hash function”

What's the difference between a one-way function and a cryptographic hash function?
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Hash function with values in a multiplicative group of prime order [closed]

I have to implement a cryptographic protocol which involves a cryptographic hash function $H: \{0,1\}^* \to G$. It is viewed as random oracle. $G$ is a multiplicative group of prime order. I want to ...
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understanding a length extension attack

I have been trying to understand exactly how a length extension attack works on SHA-1. I'll detail below what I've understood so far, so that I can convey my understanding of the same and hopefully ...
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1answer
200 views

Is there a problem with constructing a CSPRNG using MD5 or SHA1?

Is there any security concerns with building a CSPRNG using a broken hash function like MD5 or SHA1? The design is such that a CRC-like function is used for mixing entropy and MD5 is used as the ...
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Why does HOTP use such a complex truncate function?

In the HOTP protocol after calculating a 20 byte hash it is truncated to 4 bytes. For this first an offset is calculated (low-order 4 bits of the last byte) which determines the four bytes to be ...
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Why use an Initialization Vector (IV)?

Why use an Initialization Vector (IV)? How are IV's used? What are the advantages/disadvantages of using an IV? Why use an IV instead of a longer key in which some section of the key is pubic? What ...
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174 views

Preimage resistance hash in digital signature

I'm studying about preimage resistance property of the hash functions. In particularly I'm reading as the missing of this property can be fatal in digital signatures that use RSA. Further details: ...
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436 views

length extension attack on an MD5 hash of a text file of about 10K Bytes?

How much computing time on a typical desktop computer would it take to find a new length and new data to extend a text file of about 10K Bytes with a given MD5 hash?
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322 views

When using HMAC, does key encoding matter?

Given: H is a good hash function with block size L. K is a key of length >= L (recommended by RFC 2104). Khex and Kbase64 are ASCII encodings of K. In the HMAC algorithm, is there a good reason to ...
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75 views

“proof of access” schemes

What is the state of the art way when implementing a scheme challenging a party to prove they have access to certain data? What I'm looking for something along the lines of Give them ...
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140 views

How to compare two datasets „anonymously”?

Ok, I hope this question makes some sense because I am not so sure how to word it any differently… Imagine the following situation: There are 10 defined colors (blue, orange, yellow etc.) There are ...
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381 views

What does “message schedule” mean in SHA-256?

I am trying to understand the sha-256 algorithm from FIPS 180-2. I understood the padding and parsing of the message string. However after that it states (page 15): For $i = 1$ to $N$: { ...
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141 views

Does collision resistance stay when extending a hash function to a set domain?

Given a Cryptographic hash function $h$ for element $x$, let's extend it to sets via $H(S)=\prod_{x\in{S}}{h(x)}$. I am asking if the new hash $H$ (in domain of set) is still collision resistant? To ...
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1answer
379 views

When making public key fingerprints - is a sha1 hash still a good idea?

I'm thinking about trying to save some space (and readability) when referencing 2k and 4k public keys (millions of them) by storing the fingerprint in some places instead of the full public key. ...
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44 views

Distributing blocks with validation and non-dependant list generation

Problem Suppose I have a system of nodes that can communicate with a parent node, but not among each other. Suppose then a file on the parent node is split up into blocks and divided among the ...
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2answers
234 views

HMAC and assumptions on the cryptographic hash

According to Wikipedia, a cryptographic hash function has the following properties: Pre-image resistance: Given $h$, it's difficult to find any message $m$ such that $h = H(m)$. Second pre-image ...
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Why crypto hash functions must be collision resistant and how to find resistant?

Why cryptographic hash functions must be collision-free and is there any methods to evaluate whether a function is not resistant to collision? Thanks,
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Reversing SHA1 (don't know the correct term)

Given sha1(pad(A) || pad(B)), where B is known, can I calculate sha1(pad(A))? pad(A) means its length is exactly 1 block (64 bytes for SHA-1) If yes, for which other hash functions it will work too? ...
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106 views

Encrypt user email but be able to find user by email

Sorry for my dumb question, but it's better to ask dumb question than to do dumb things silently. I want to encrypt user email in my DB so that if someone stole the DB (and not the key) - he won't be ...
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139 views

Do I need to keep a 64-bit version number secret?

Assume the following structure: version | iv | ciphertext | HMAC(version | iv | ciphertext | ..., key) The version starts out ...
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455 views

What are the potential security impacts of using CRAM-MD5 for Emails, when not using an SSL connection?

Background: My current server-provider tells me it's no problem to store the passwords in plain-text in the database, saying he has to do so because they use CRAM-MD5 for email authentication. But ...
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Is Wikipedia's table about SHA-2 collisions correct?

I was looking a Wikipedia article on SHA-2, and the "Comparison of SHA functions" table seems to indicate that SHA-2 is less secure than SHA-1. Is this true, or is the table wrong / misleading? ...
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1answer
137 views

What key length is required to keep simple keyed “hash” secure?

In a previous question, I described a particular keyed "hash" that mapped a 5-digit input code into a 5-digit output code. It used a 8-bit key which is very insecure - more than 99% of the time, you ...
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Physical Level Encryption

What types of algorithms that are capable of signing a message are out there that run on a physical level, e.g. lacking the infrastructure of a standard PC, no memory, processor or motherboard in the ...
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SHA-1:Is there any mathematical result that gives us the minimum number of 1's in a 160-bit SHA-1 hash output?

Is there any mathematical result that gives us the minimum number of 1's in a 160-bit SHA-1 hash output? What is the probability that a 160-bit SHA-1 hash output contains at least 128 1's?
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Using an MD5 hash as a password

Suppose Alice is using a password prompt that only accepts up to 32 characters for any particular password. Memorization of long strings of random characters is not one of Alice's strengths, so she ...
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Increased CRC collision probability when adding bits to input message

The Scenario I have a message string I need to transport over a wireless network that may be unreliable. This message string is about 100 bits long, and is packaged with an 8-bit CRC. When the ...
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Finding hash almost-collisions

A few months ago, XKCD posted a challenge to find a plaintext which hashed (using Skein 1024 1024) to a specified value. Inputs were scored based on the hamming distance between the hash of the ...
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Recommended way of adding a pepper/secret key to password before hashing?

There have been several questions regarding password hashing here and on Security.SE. A "pepper" is sometimes mentioned – an application-specific secret key. The canonical answer on password hashing ...
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240 views

Many consecutive hashes to slow down brute force attack?

I've heard that hash algorithms like bcrypt are more secure because they take longer to complete, and therefore take much longer to prute force, without a noticable ...
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1answer
76 views

How to hash a structure that needs to include that hash's outcome?

so I am busy writing a TCP protocol in which I send a "packet header" with each packet of data. This packet header is a structure that contains information about the data that was sent. I want to ...
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Knowing a valid salted hash for an unknown secret, is it possible to compute another valid hash?

$H(s,r)=d$ is a function that hashes the secret string $s$ with a salt $r$, and returns a digest $d$. $r$ may be arbitrarily chosen and each $r$ returns a different $d$. For any $d$, $r$ is known from ...
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toy hash algorithm

I'm looking for a toy hash function, where the idea is to have high school students break (i.e. find a collision) a hash function by hand, in order to teach them how one way functions and hashing ...
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1answer
699 views

Secure order preserving hash function

Is there a construction of an order preserving hash function that keeps the preimage property of a crypto hash function? By order preserving hash function (OPHF) i mean for $x<y$ then $OPHF(x) < ...
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LT codes with Homomorphic hashing

I have been working on a project implementing LT codes with Homomorphic hashing (inspired from http://blog.notdot.net/2012/08/Damn-Cool-Algorithms-Homomorphic-Hashing and ...
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1answer
165 views

How can a key pair be derived from an arbitrary hash?

If I correctly understand the concept of a "brain wallet" in BitCoin, you start with a passphrase, generate the hash of the passphrase, then somehow derive a public / private key from that to use as ...
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Tamper-proofing log files

Problem Overview I want to securely store log files so the contents are secret, and they can't be modified without detection. The files will be encrypted using authenticated encryption (AES in GCM ...
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Are cryptographic hash functions perfect hash functions?

For a cryptographic hash function and input values of shorter length than the hash function output, it's pretty obvious that there should be as few collisions as possible. But are there guaranteed to ...
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Why is $h(H, m) = E(m, H) \oplus m$ insecure?

I am taking a cryptography class on Coursera. I learned that the compression function $h(H, m) = E_m(H) \oplus m$ is insecure (even though other variants like Davies­-Meyer or Miyaguchi-Preneel are ...
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675 views

Why are the Davies-Meyer and Miyaguchi-Preneel constructions secure?

The Davies-Meyer compression function $h(H, m) = E_m(H) \oplus H$ is said to be secure. So too is the Miyaguchi-Preneel compression function $h(H, m) = E_m(H) \oplus m \oplus H$. Why are these ...
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How can I prove that this encryption scheme from a random oracle is secure?

I am reading this example: A random oracle is an ideal object. What makes a random oracle convenient for proofs is the part about knowing nothing on the output for a given input if you do not ...
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1answer
197 views

How to use salt if I am sending hashed password?

If have application that is sending username and hashed password to server for authentication, how would I use salt for this scenario ?
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313 views

Any point in waiting for the SHA-3 standard?

The Wikipedia article on SHA-3 says that Keccak has been chosen but the standard hasn't been issued. Does this matter? That is, can we just assume it's going to be as specified by the submitters ...
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282 views

Using salted hash as password for easy memorization without reuse?

I had an idea earlier: Secure passwords are a) long, and b) unpredictable. A hash is both of these. Would it be safe to reuse a key between sites, and include the site's name as a salt? For example: ...
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“Weaknesses” in SHA-256d?

According to this answer, "SHA-256d" was proposed in one of the Ferguson/Schneier books like so: SHA-256d(x) = SHA-256(SHA-256(x)) Apparently, the motivation for ...
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How can mega store my login details and still be secure?

I understand how Mega's encryption works. For a quick summary of all those in the future looking for an answer on this... here is how it works: Upon first signing up for an account you make a ...
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What's the difference between “HashX-512” and “HashX-1024”?

I need to make a Skein hash's, specifically, Skein-1024; however, I only have access currently to Skein-512. Is there any way to utilize a Skein-512 function to get the result of a Skein-1024 hash? ...
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RSA digital signature vs authenticated cipher

I want to provide both confidentiality and integrity for data at rest (many large files stored on disk). I plan to encrypt the data using AES, which will cover the confidentiality requirement. So ...