A cryptographic hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inputs with the same output, or reconstruct the input from the output.

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Does this guarantee a unique 32 bit Hash?

I came across some source code that loosely does the below in order to achieve a 32 bit hash. The input string is passed through MD5 to get 16 bytes Hash (as usual). Then the 16 bytes are split into ...
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Cipher built from GPU primitives [closed]

Is it feasible to build a cipher (or hash) out of GPU or DSP primitives (e.g. big matrix multiplication, Fast Fourier Transform, big block SIMD, or hardware H.264/AVC codec)? Preferably those are slow ...
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68 views

Implementation Attacks on Hashes

So I am familiar with attacking implementations of block ciphers via side channel attacks, cache-timing attacks, etc. What implementation attacks are there against hashes or hashed based functions ...
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implementing a cryptographic hash with a block cipher [duplicate]

How can a cryptographic hash function be implemented/created using the block cipher? I was wondering if we can use AES in cipher block chaining mode to implement it.
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How is HMAC(message,key) more secure than Hash(key1+message+key2)

I understand how for hash functions which are vulnerable to length extension attacks (such as SHA1 and SHA2) it is safer to use a HMAC construction. What I don't understand is, how or why is ...
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File Encryption (EFS method)

I'm implementing (for learning purposes) a file encryptor, which uses the following method (from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encrypting_File_System). I have 3 kind of keys: RSA public/private, AES ...
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188 views

A fast non-cryptographic hash function that is “strong enough”?

I'm designing a simple one-time-password mechanism for authentication against a possibly-insecure server - i.e. I don't want to use symmetric shared secrets. The first idea that came into mind was ...
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131 views

Design requirements for a keyed hash function?

I am actually preparing for a cryptography exam, and I found a question asked by the professor in the class, below are the lines that I copied from the slide : Example: Let $Ek$ be the encryption ...
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How does use of HMAC affect hash function combiners?

In the comments of this question, Ricky Demer proposes a function $HMAX$ to combine two $HMAC$s based on different hash functions: $HMAX_{H0,H1}(⟨k_0,k_1⟩,m) = HMAC_{H0}(k_0,m) \oplus ...
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326 views

Question about modifying the MD5 plain text to cause a collision

I was trying to understand MD5 and got stuck with this question, its from Michael sipser's book on Information security Principles and Practice, 2nd edition The MD5 collision in Problem 25 is said ...
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144 views

Precise meaning of various terms related to universal hash functions

I've been reading about universal hashing, but I'm confused by all these different terms and notations. Could someone help me understand the precise meaning or relation between the following terms: ...
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How can I prove that this encryption scheme from a random oracle is secure?

I am reading this example: A random oracle is an ideal object. What makes a random oracle convenient for proofs is the part about knowing nothing on the output for a given input if you do not ...
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How hard is a known prefix hash preimage attack?

Suppose the attacker knows $X, Z$ such that $H(X || Y) = Z$ If bit-length(Y) < 60 then a brute force attack is possible. What if ...
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350 views

Openssl implementation of improved sha1 hashing [closed]

I want to use the improved sha1 hashing algorithm from the Intel blog described here Intel sha1 hashing. Currently I am using Openssl sha1 hashing in my application. I wanted to know if anybody has ...
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Using one-way hash functions as the encryption method

Suppose two parties want to communicate securely with each other (Bob and Alice) using a simple messaging system in English. There are approximately 180,000 currently used words in the English ...
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159 views

Are there cryptographic hash functions which do not have any collisions?

I've been studying digital signatures and hash functions recently, and I was wondering: Do hash functions exist which will never produce collisions?
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Why crypto hash functions must be collision resistant and how to find resistant?

Why cryptographic hash functions must be collision-free and is there any methods to evaluate whether a function is not resistant to collision? Thanks,
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128 views

Parallel hash construction

I'm wondering why hash constructions aren't parallel like CTR mode for encryption? For example: We have ideal block cipher E, where we encrypt message block with counter and xor output block with ...
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275 views

Secure Hash Function based on AES

How secure would a hash function be which appends an extra block of 16 zeroed out bytes to the end of the message and then AES-encrypts it with a well-known password (say the first 128 bits of pi) ...
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139 views

Slow hash algorithm that does not require salt?

I usually choose bcrypt when hashing as I can set the work factor to slow down the calculations of the hash. However, I have to keep a copy of the hash in order to verify it (since it includes the ...
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2answers
179 views

Comparing Files: Is it better to use multiple hash algorithms or just one?

I'm looking to compare (for byte-for-byte equality) two binary files. I already have the process down: Check for existence etc. Compare file lengths Use a hash or CRC of a sort (right now I use ...
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2answers
86 views

Preimage of SHA512 with a known suffix

Is it possible to figure out what $arg1 is if I know both $arg2 and $arg3 in addition to ...
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538 views

Real life collision when only using truncated hash

For MD5 two different inputs are known that produce the same 128 bit hash value. However, these inputs are artificially created for this specific purpose. For normal, real life inputs I believe no ...
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1answer
121 views

On the privacy of perfect hash functions

I'm digging into the several algorithms for building (Minimal) Perfect Hash Functions. It seems that the recent works provide quite a few very efficient algorithms. However, I'm wondering how a ...
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153 views

Different padding rules for Merkle–Damgård and Keccak/sponge function

We learned that length padding was used in Merkle–Damgård where after padding with zeros another block is added that contains the initial length of the input. This is supposed to prevent same hash ...
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152 views

Does collision resistance stay when extending a hash function to a set domain?

Given a Cryptographic hash function $h$ for element $x$, let's extend it to sets via $H(S)=\prod_{x\in{S}}{h(x)}$. I am asking if the new hash $H$ (in domain of set) is still collision resistant? To ...
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Does a break in a collision resistance property of a hash function by definition implies an attack at the first pre-image attack?

Is there a formal security proof in the shape of reduction that states that if an attacker manages to break the collision resistance property of a cryptographic hash function (a random oracle) he will ...
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530 views

Creating a hash of XOR'd blocks

Suppose a message $m$ is divided into blocks of length $160$ bits: $m > = M_1 || M_2 || ... || M_l$ And define $h(m) = M_1 \oplus M_2 \oplus ... \oplus M_l$ Which of the three desirable ...
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103 views

N way collision of hashes

For a collision $H(A_1) = H(A_2)$, the number of queries is $T^{1/2}$ where $\log_2(T)$ is length of hash output. Then, what would be the number of queries requried to find an $n$-collision ($H(A_1) = ...
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93 views

CRC32 vs. low 32 bits of cryptographic hash

I was having a discussion with a colleague yesterday whose education and experience exceeded mine. He said something yesterday that sounded incorrect to me intuitively, but I don't have the knowledge ...
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101 views

Determining average number of hash calls to get a hash that begins with X

I have been attempting to find an answer to a self-study question: If I have a hash algorithm that outputs 256 binary bits, on average, how many times would I have to call the hash function so ...
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1answer
217 views

Hash 22 byte secret into 512 bit hash: Full entropy?

Does it make sense to hash a 22 byte secret (which may not have full entropy since it is chosen by the user) into a 512 bit hash (using Keccak-512)? More precisely, will the 512 bit hash have full ...
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210 views

Does CBC encryption of a hash provide authenticity?

Given a message $M$ and a cryptographic hash function $H$, let $f(M) = E_K(M || H(M))$ where $E_K$ is AES-128-CBC encryption with PKCS#5 padding. Take $H = \textrm{SHA-256}$ if it matters. In other ...
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208 views

why hash(hash(str)) is bad?

Why do people say that using hash twice or more is bad? yes there is key derivation that do that job, but in a low bandwidth network countries, the solution i see is to use a simple hashing system on ...
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Is stretching hash several times basically the same as bcrypt?

As I understand it, the main advantage of bcrypt is stretching so it becomes slower to crack overtime. But, is using a "good enough" algorithm (e.g., SHA-2 family) then stretching until it's slow ...
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1answer
71 views

Why are cryptographically secure hashes required for digital signing (RSA or DSA)?

I know that a cryptographically secure hashing algorithm is required for proper message signing (SHA-1, or I think SHA-2 is the current suggested algorithm). However, why does the hashing algorithm ...
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1answer
156 views

Combining Random Hashes - avoiding collisions and ensuring randomness

I have a series of integers which I want to convert to random integer (64 bit). The idea here is to produce random numbers very quickly. The issues that good quality random numbers are required with a ...
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135 views

What are the major flaws and limitations of this hash-based stream cipher design?

K is a 224-bit key. C is a 32-bit counter; it is publicly known. the same value is never used twice. ...
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1answer
148 views

Why concatenate the key a second time in HMAC? [duplicate]

On Wikipedia it is said that HMAC is basically (without taking into account padding): $H(key\ \Vert\ H(key\ \Vert\ message))$ where $\Vert$ denotes concatenation. I understand the need to hash ...
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619 views

Estimating random number entropy for input into 256 bit hash

Assuming a random number generation process outputs lots of numbers between 0-9. First I gathered up a bunch of the numbers, converted them to binary and created a bitmap. Not so random as you can ...
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164 views

Digital Signature Scheme Count

My question is How I will be able to count digital signature Scheme that can sign many documents with one private key. There are signature scheme as long as exists private keys in the keys spaces? or ...
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744 views

Can md5 be used for encrypting data?

I know that md5 shouldn't be used for password hashing because of collisions and possibility of making dictionary attacks e.g. using rainbow tables. But what about ...
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1answer
308 views

Verifying the integrity of ciphertext using the cleartext hash?

I want to be able to verify the integrity of a ciphertext by providing the cleartext hash, for this to work it would need to: $$hash(crypt(cleartext)) = f(hash(cleartext))$$ Where $f$ is an ...
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1answer
56 views

Associative but NOT Commutative Reducing Function Construction with Existing Hash Function(s)

Is it possible to construct a binary reducing function based on any existing cryptographic hash function satisfying the associative property but not the commutative property? So formally: Using an ...
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1answer
130 views

Hash collision using the leading 40-bits of SHA-1

I am trying to implement Floyd's cycle finding algorithm for finding a leading 40-bit hash collision in the SHA-1 algorithm. However, my code will not find a repetition even with 800,000,000 hashes. ...
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1answer
98 views

Question about second preimage resistance of hash function combiner

Let $\Pi=(Gen_1,H_1)$ and $\Pi=(Gen_2,H_2)$ be two hash functions. Define $(Gen, H)$ so that $Gen$ runs $Gen_1$ and $Gen_2$ obtaining $s_1$ and $s_2$ respectively. Then let ...
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1answer
79 views

How can a digital signature algorithm incorporate a random data if it is to be authenticated on a separate system

I am trying to understand how RSA digital signatures can incorporate any data from a PRNG into the final signature. Does this mean that separate implementations might fail to verify each others ...
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123 views

reverse an identicon to its source string

Identicons are used to create unique images based on IP address or strings. Lots of programs are available to generate identicons based on an input string. My ...
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1answer
124 views

XORing a header with SHA512-hash - secure?

I am writing a application that encrypts text several times and stores the result. The result looks like complete random bytes, therefore I add some random bytes at the end. To let the program know ...
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pbkdf2 password validation

My question is related to PBKDF2. I am unsure how to validate user entered password with already existing hashes and salts. I have heard of the so called "length-constant" comparison which basically ...