# Tagged Questions

A cryptographic hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inputs with the same output, or reconstruct the input from the output.

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### What are the pros and cons of deterministic site-specific password generation from a master pass?

I've been reading up a bit on deterministic password generators. All the ones I can find basically do something like this: Pick a master username and a master passphrase. The username could be your ...
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### HMAC vs Encrypted Hash

What is best to use (for message integrity) between… AES(Data) + HMAC(Data) AES(Data + HMAC(Data)) AES(Data + Hash(Data)) …and why?
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### Hash of multiset of values, which lets me compute the hash of the union

Cryptographic hash functions normally take as input a bitstring. I am looking for a hash function that takes as input a finite multiset of values. In other words, given $S \subset \{0,1\}^*$, I want ...
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### Does encrypting a hash of the message yield a secure MAC?

Is $mac = enc(hash(x))$ a secure MAC for hash = SHA256 and enc AES in CBC mode or ECB mode. Normally AES-CBC is malleable. But in this case I use a hash function for the one-way property. For ...
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### Hash functions throughput performance [closed]

Without taking into account security, which hash function is the fastest one among the following: MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2 (for various internal size), Keccak, and other… ?
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### Infinite depth BLAKE2b tree hashing

In the BLAKE2 paper, the authors define Maximal depth (1 byte): an integer in [1, 255] (set to 255 if unlimited, and to 1 only in sequential mode) Node depth (1 byte): an integer in [0, 255] ...
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### WIN LM Password Hashes (using John the ripper) [closed]

In a problem set, we've been asked to use John The Ripper to crack a list of Win LANMAN passwords. They are of the following form: 953A55E36AB85C0B9DA92C18555E42E1:0169295E0A6A6B35B2DD9932D10C1978 ...
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### Question about modifying the MD5 plain text to cause a collision

I was trying to understand MD5 and got stuck with this question, its from Michael sipser's book on Information security Principles and Practice, 2nd edition The MD5 collision in Problem 25 is said ...
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### Formal definition of “explicit” algorithm?

A long time ago, I read that the definition of "cryptographic hash function" is "collision-resistant one-way function". (A similar definition shows up in the FIPS standards for SHA-1 etc.) But this ...
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### Is this a good entropy collector and whitening technique?

I'm just reviewing a program someone wrote to provide high quality random data using an entropy collector and a hash based whitening technique. I'll try summarize the process: Collect entropy from ...
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### How hard/easy will be to break a SHA-1 or SHA-256 hash if the attacker knows part of the original text?

I'm creating an algorithm to hash some text variables (20/30 characters long) to send them across an insecure channel. I'm not dealing with high security data, so no credits card numbers or any other ...
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### Hashing a message with a length that isn't a multiple of 8 bits

NIST FIPS 180-4. “5.1. Padding the Message.” Suppose that the length of the message, $M$, is $l$ bits. Is there any library that can receive a message of length (in bits) which is not a multiple ...
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### Difference between salted hash and keyed hashing?

A cryptographic salt is additional input other than message itself for a hash function so that it prevents attacker from launching dictionary attacks . Usually the salt is stored along with the hash ...
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### Why must curve25519 shared secret be hashed?

When using the curve25519 DH function, D.J. Bernstein recommends hashing the shared secret before using it as a session key for a symmetric block cipher. Why is that? Hashing won't increase the ...
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### Are NIST's changes to Keccak/SHA-3 problematic?

NIST is working on standardizing SHA-3. They have selected Keccak as the basis for SHA-3, and they plan to make some small changes to it; the result (with NIST's changes) will be standardized as SHA-...
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### Why does second pre-image resistance imply pre-image resistance

I am studying hash functions. I can understand why collision resistance implies second preimage resistance, but I don't get why second preimage resistance should imply first preimage resistance. ...
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### What security differences are there between E(p',“well-known-plaintext”) vs. hash(p') where p'=KDF(p)

I am using a KDF to derive a key, p' from a password p. I would like to know if the password is correct before using the derived ...
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### Could completely public passphrase hashes ever be reliably secure?

This is a hypothetical question and I only have a basic understanding of Cryptography. If one were to follow the very best cryptographic practices for storing passphrases, could it ever be possible ...
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### Using Whirlpool hashing function to encrypt data

I've read that the Whirlpool hash function can produce footprints that could be used as a pseudorandom generator. Is it "OK" to use it to encrypt some data using something like the following? ...
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### Is it possible to find a preimage for a reduced size hash?

Given a message $M$ and a 256 bit key $K$, perform HMAC($K$, $M$) with a 256 bit hash function resulting in: $a$ = ...
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### Can I construct a feasible stream cipher out of HMAC and a secure hash algorithm?

I have constructed a stream cipher from a secure hash algorithm and a HMAC. Here is a brief description of the algorithm: Let: (Actually Objective-C styled pseudo code) ...
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### Precise meaning of various terms related to universal hash functions

I've been reading about universal hashing, but I'm confused by all these different terms and notations. Could someone help me understand the precise meaning or relation between the following terms: ...
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### bcrypt and pbkdf2 double hashing

If I want to protect myself from implementation of algorithm issues and inherent design flaws of algorithms in password hashing, what would be most secure way to combine two hashes? bcrypt(pbkdf2(pw)...
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### SHA256 Round Equivalence

I have calculated the average number of operations in 1 round of SHA256 as follows: Additions: 9.25 Bitwise Rotations: 9 Bitwise Shifts: 1.5 Bitwise AND: 5 Bitwise XOR: 10 I have certain ...
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### Multiple parties must encrypt and get the same result

Hopefully this question is not too simple - I did some research but with encryption I really don't want to make a mistake. Our scenario is that multiple groups need to encrypt a number and arrive at ...
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### Is it theoretically possible to construct a string that contains its own hash value?

After saw the xkcd comic Self-Description, I wonder if it is theoretically possible to construct a self-descriptive string that contains its own hash value? Let's say the string's MD5 value is ...