A cryptographic hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inputs with the same output, or reconstruct the input from the output.

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PGP String to Key specifiers

I've been reading through the PGP Standard and here I'm a little confused. This section is discussing converting string data to a session key. I'm confused about the paragraph in bold. First off, what ...
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How does SafeNet MobilePASS generate passwords? (TOTP Variant)

This question is similar to How does SafeNet MobilePASS generate passwords? The question and answer there is related to the HMAC Variant of SafeNet Mobilepass. I'm looking for details on the TOTP ...
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what is legend of h(r) in this protocol?

can you help me what is legend of h(r) in below protocol? ‎‎$A‎\leftarrow‎{B}\quad:{h(r)‎‎}{,B}{,P{_A(r,B)}}‎\\A‎\rightarrow‎{B}\quad:r$
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Inserting a backdoor into a cryptographic hash function

I'm curious as to how a backdoor can be built into a hash function. What might it take the form of? What's probability of getting one that can be backdoored in a way that can actually undermine its ...
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What can cause similar MD5 hashes

I have a set of MD5 hashes with huge similarities in the second half of the hash, (made up) examples: ...
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Collision attacks on digital signatures

After reading this document about MD5 collision attacks, I still don't understand how collisions can make digital signatures insecure. In the paper, the researchers created two files with the same ...
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Problem with testing MD5 collisions

I am trying to test MD5 collisions presented in “Collisions for Hash Functions MD4, MD5, HAVA” (PDF) by Xiaoyun Wang, Dengguo Feng, Xuejia Lai, Hongbo Yu; 2004. I wrote a PHP script to test it, but ...
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144 views

How many attempts does it take to crack a 32-bit password hash with this scenario?

How many attempts does it take to crack (match) a 32-bit password hash from a database of 4 million password hashes? Correct me if I'm wrong, but to crack a 32-bit password hash would take roughly ...
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HMAC-Ripemd-160 in TrueCrypt

I'm wondering if it is still secure. I know TrueCrypt closed its doors but I continue using it because the cryptoaudit didn't find any huge bugs or security issues in TrueCrypt. But I have a bad ...
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Collision resistant hash functions

Let (Gen1,H1) and (Gen2,H2) be two hash functions. Define (Gen,H) so that Gen runs Gen1 and Gen2 to obtain keys s1 and s2, respectively. Then define Hs1,s2(x)=Hs1(x)||Hs2(x). a) Prove that if at ...
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Is there an encryption that is only reversible with a key?

I'm thinking about man-in-the-middle attacks during a website login, and started wondering about reversible encryption. What I'm imagining is an encryption that takes input ...