A cryptographic hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inputs with the same output, or reconstruct the input from the output.

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Change in probability of collision when removing digits from MD5 hexadecimal hash values

I am aware that MD5 has a known collision vulnerability and should not be relied upon when uniqueness is required, but in the environment I am working on I only have access to MD5 hash function. ...
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Non-iterative cryptographic hash functions

Consider the following cryptographic hash function $H$ which maps a message $m$ of variable size to $b$ bits: $$H:\{0,1\}^{*} \mapsto \{0,1\}^b$$ $$y = H(m) = SPRP(IV||m||padding)\mid_{b}$$ , where: ...
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How were shift amount constants in MD5 found?

The md5 specification gives a series of 4 rounds to execute over a 16-word block. Each round has a repeating sequence of 4 shift amounts (s in ...
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Turning a cipher into a hashing function

This is theoretical question. I'd like to know if it's possible (and what are eventually the consequences), not that I'm going to do it in one of my projects. ;) The first hashing functions created ...
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How can I improve a password generation scheme based on a shared secret and URL?

I currently use the following method to generate a different password on every website I have to login: password = SHA1 ( mainPassword . domainName . number ) ...
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Is SHA-256 secure as a CTR block cipher?

Generate a 256-bit random nonce. XOR it with a 256-bit reusable symmetric key. This is x. We represent numbers in simple binary instead of a counting function. ...
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Using hashes as passwords

I have thought of a system for generating passwords which works as follows: Take the following items: A password, such as williamwallace. A secret 1000 digit ...
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Does the position of the salt improve its effectiveness when hashing?

Seems most documentation I have read suggests the salt should prefix the value to be hashed. Is this just for consistency, or is the salt more effective when prefixed?
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Will repeated rounds of SHA-512 provide random numbers?

If I hash a keyword with SHA-512 and then feed the output as the key for the next round ....and keep repeating this process, will I gather a stream of random numbers?
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Use of salt to hash a password

In a few implementations of hashed passwords, I have seen that the length of the random salt is chosen to be, say, 10 or "some constant". Is there any specific reason why the salt is chosen to have a ...
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What are the security implications of multiple hashing?

There are plenty of questions on this site about hashing passwords. However, none of them quite cover this topic. One of those links covers using multiple different hash algorithms; one covers general ...
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Why xor the message into the state for sponge hashes?

Sponge hashes like Keccak(SHA-3) and CubeHash, xor a message block into part of the internal state. Why use a reversible operation like xor for that, instead of replacing that part of the state with ...
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Can an encryption method be used as a hash function?

As I understand, there are a few requirements for a good hash function. Hard to find any message from a given hash Hard to find any 2 messages which give the same hash A single bit change in the ...
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How does Truecrypt change password without the need for a complete re-encryption of volume

From what I understand: TrueCrypt takes the password as message Add salt calculates a digest use digest for encryption From what I understand. A good hash function has Second pre-image ...
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From hash to Cryptographic hash

After reading some excellent papers on SipHash, I understood that good non-cryptographic hashes such as MurmurHash and CityHash are not secure for MAC usage, due to a certain type of DDos attack ...
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Hashing a password before using for online accounts

I don't actually know what I'm talking about, so apologies if I get anything wrong. At the moment I have a password naming system for most of my online accounts that looks something like this: ...
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Is there a string that's hash is equal to itself?

I was wondering if there's any string that has a hash equal to itself, so that – when using any (none specific) hash function – the hash would be equal to that string? so that: ...
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Is there a hash function which has no collisions?

Is there a hash function which has no collisions? To clarify: it would be some function which would produce variable-length output, and never produce the same output for differing input. It would ...
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Quantum on hash

Perhaps this has been answered before. Grover's algorithm should result in a 256 bit hash being complexity 128 bits to crack. I was wondering, what if you had a 512 bit hash , and xor'd the lower 256 ...
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Is there any research on the problem of making a number more memorable to humans?

Authentication protocols often rely on humans dealing with large numbers correctly. For example, when a user logs into a remote machine using SSH for the first time, she is prompted to confirm that ...
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Security of KDF1 and KDF2 (hash based KDF's)

It's still common to come across implementations of KDF1 and KDF2. Basically these are KDF's that simply derive multiple keys from the key seed and a counter: $K_i = KDF(K_{master}, i) = H(K_{master} ...
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argon2 versus bcrypt/PBKDF2 password hashing security gain

I wonder if it can be approximated how much of a security margin the new argon2 hash, winner of the password hashing competition, can give over bcrypt or PBKDF2, for an attacker using large GPU ...
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What is the recommended replacement for MD5?

Since MD5 is broken for purposes of security, what hash should I be using now for secure applications?
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Associative standard cryptographic hash function

I am looking for a standard hash function which satisfies the following property: A hash function $H(a,b) = F(h(a),h(b))$ with $h$ (within $F$) any standard cryptographic hash function and $F$ an ...
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What is the difference between a HMAC and a hash of data?

On a recent question it became apparent that there's a significant difference between an HMAC of input data and a hash of input data. What exactly is the difference between an HMAC and a hash of a ...
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What alphanumeric string length can be used to guarantee no hash collisions from CRC-64?

If I'm hashing alphanumeric strings (chars in the set 0-9, a-...
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Is SHA-1 still practically secure under specific scenarios?

It is conjectured that SHA-1 has been broken from the "research" perspective but no in real world. That is that there is an algebraic attack that explores weaknesses on its algebraic construction. The ...
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Why hash or salt when signing? [duplicate]

I've seen an example of how to sign using RSA. Besides the signing itself (s = m^d mod n) it also hashes and adds an IV. Why is that needed?
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Toy hash algorithm that can be broken

I'm looking for a toy hash function, where the idea is to have high school students break (i.e. find a collision) a hash function by hand, in order to teach them how one way functions and hashing ...
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Is SipHash cryptographically secure?

I'm evaluating different hash algorithms for use in my application. One of the kind of algorithms I am looking at are cryptographically secure ones to protect against DOS attacks. SipHash seems ...
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How are timestamps verified?

You put an input and the hash value comes as an output then when someone puts the input the hash function it is applied to see if it is the same hash original value is stored in some database , that ...
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Could a very long password theoretically eliminate the need for a slow hash?

Before I provide details, I want to clarify that I am not looking to implement this practically, but I'm only asking to get a better understanding. The way I currently understand it, we use slow ...
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Can I find two specific words with the same md5 hash?

I want to find two strings containing special words like "yes" or "no", mixed with random characters, for which the MD5 hash is equal. An example of what I'm looking for: ...
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Can there be two hash functions without common collisions?

Is there a way to prove/create (or are there known hash functions) two hash functions that never have the same collision? I mean, like provable in way that someone who took one cryptography class in ...
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In the SHA hash algorithm, why is the message always padded?

In the SHA hash algorithm the message is always padded, even if initially the correct length without padding; the padding is of the form "1" followed by the necessary number of 0s. Why is it ...
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Why have hashes when you have MACs?

It would seem to a naive eye that if you have a MAC, you have a hash function: use a key that all the parties know (such as all-bits-zero). A potential application would be a resource-constrained ...
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The effect of truncated hash on entropy

Suppose I have a 128-bit random binary string (128 bits of entropy), then I hash it using SHA-256, then I take the first 128 bits of the output hash. Does the taken bit string still have (almost) 128 ...
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Does having multiple hash iterations of the same message weaken your original message security?

Take a hash function H() to be something like SHA-256 and message m. If you are given H(m) ...
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How many bits of hash are realistically needed for key verification?

Say I'm connecting to a web server secured with TLS but with a self-signed certificate. Accordingly, I call the owners of the server and ask them what SHA1 fingerprint they have. They start reading ...
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Key Length & Hashing

I need to use a hash function to generate a 128-bit key for a symmetric cipher. The specific cipher is from the eStream portofolio, called Rabbit. I am using the SRP protocol for authentication (a ...
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Rely on NSA Suite B Cryptography?

NSA's Suite B Cryptography suggests some cryptographic algorithms for encryption, digital signatures, message digests and key agreements. The selected algorithms and their key size are suggested by ...
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Asymmetric algorithm to generate compact unique messages that can be validated

I have a cryptographic problem with the following characteristics: I need to generate a set of relatively short messages; say 20 bytes in length The contents of the messages themselves is not ...
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Accelerating SHA-1

I have a program where computing SHA-1 is the bottleneck. This is using OpenSSL 1.0.0e on a 2.6Ghz 16-core Opteron where I get about 325MiB/s throughput. (SHA1 here is via Andy Polyakov's x86-64 ...
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How are secure hashing and encryption algorithms proven?

Given that: You should always use proven secure hashing and encryption algorithms, rather than attempting to write your own. What's the process for criteria for an algorithm being proven? Is ...
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Using an MD5 hash as a password

Suppose Alice is using a password prompt that only accepts up to 32 characters for any particular password. Memorization of long strings of random characters is not one of Alice's strengths, so she ...
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Finding hash almost-collisions

A few months ago, XKCD posted a challenge to find a plaintext which hashed (using Skein 1024 1024) to a specified value. Inputs were scored based on the hamming distance between the hash of the ...
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Can I use a key-derivation-function as the hash function H in SRP?

In the Secure Remote Password Protocol, the verifier must be stored on the server. In the case of a server compromise, an attacker could obtain these verifiers. If nobody reused passwords, this ...
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Is SHA-1 safe for signing ECDHE parameters?

Is using the SHA-1 algorithm insecure for hashing the ephemeral ECDH public key in the signed_params structure? There are some worrying articles about using SHA-1: ...
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Commitment scheme using hash functions

Let's say Alice and Bob are playing a game where Bob is trying to guess a number Alice has chosen. Alice chooses a key $K$ and a number $N$ at random and performs $C=Commit(K, N)$ where $Commit(K, ...
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Would it matter if my miner was hashing random vs incremental values?

I'm working on my miner for my "game" site that's basically a pre-image attack from a hash posted online. You submit a hash input, it's hashed, and your score is the hamming distance (the number of ...