A cryptographic hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inputs with the same output, or reconstruct the input from the output.

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Password hashing in /etc/shadow

Passwords hashed under Unix/Linux systems can use several hashing algorithms. ...
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Keyed-hash of a lot of small numbers

Let's say I have a list of several million numbers, with only 6-9 digits of secret information per number (this means that an attacker might efficiently guess the other digits). I have to store the ...
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269 views

Why do I need to add the original salt to each hash iteration of a password?

I understand it is important to hash passwords over multiple iterations to make things harder for an attacker. I have read numerous times that when processing these iterations, it is critical to hash ...
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503 views

Can a salt for a password hash be public?

For my understanding salts in password hashes are used to prevent the precompuation of plaintext$\to$hashvalues (rainbow tables). I know from different threads, it is not necessary to keep the salt ...
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35 views

In Merkle Damgard Constructoin, why do we add another block with value of number of blocks? [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand how can we find collisions, in simpler Merkle-Damgard constructions. consider my question as, what are the collisions for these cases of Merkle-Damgard constructions: we pad ...
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262 views

Formal definition of “explicit” algorithm?

A long time ago, I read that the definition of "cryptographic hash function" is "collision-resistant one-way function". (A similar definition shows up in the FIPS standards for SHA-1 etc.) But this ...
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242 views

Can you help me understand hash-preserving encryption?

I have rather simplistic understanding of cryptography, so I have to beg a pardon in advance if the question has internal contradictions. Imagine data $A$ with a hash $hashA$. This data is encrypted ...
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280 views

unique one-way hash

For a 10-digits numeric domain (swedish social security numbers), is there a hash function with the following properties? no two numbers result in the same hash it is not possible to deduce the ...
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268 views

Hash function based on block cipher (and proof of security in the PRP model)

Do there exist proofs of security for primitives like hash functions (based on a block cipher) in the PRP model. I often see proofs in the random oracle model (for hash function based on compression ...
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Salts, how does the script know what the salt is?

I am new to PHP programming and trying to grasp the idea of hashing and encryption for protecting passwords, credit card details and such. I've done a lot of reading about MD5 which I think I ...
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97 views

Proof of shared secret through key derivation

Alice gives a random key $K$ (e.g. 32 bytes long) to Bob through a secure channel. Bob want to prove to Alice through an unsecured channel that he knows the key. Is it secure for Bob to send ...
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70 views

Dependence on Keyed Hash Function

I'm reading the paper “Collision-Resistant Hashing? Towards Making UOWHFs Practical” which states: With an ACR hash function $F$ the key $K$ is announced and the adversary wins if she manages to ...
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652 views

Hash function based on pseudorandom functions and security

Are there hash functions that make use of pseudorandom functions. Precisely, I'm looking for a specification of a hash function based on PRF (and based on the security of such a primitive).
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With Encrypt-then-MAC, and flexible protocols, do I need to authenticate the authentication?

Sorry, the question is not easy to state (or wasn't for me, anyhow). So I'm writing a very flexible format for security. It allows for full choice of cipher, key size, and so on, along with key ...
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954 views

How many possible input files are there who's length can be stored in 63-bits?

I'm trying to calculate how many possible combinations of files there can be using a signed 64-bit file length, but can't seem to find a formula (or I'm using the wrong keywords). For example, the ...
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186 views

How can uniformity of hash functions (e.g. SHA-256) be proved?

In reading about the Bitcoin protocol I noticed how much its proofs-of-work apparently depend on uniformity of the SHA-256 hash function. And so presumably do many other applications. How do ...
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125 views

What does pseudo pre-image of a hash function mean?

So finding a pre-image means given the hash value, one tries to find a message that gives this value using the function's standard IV. What about pseudo-preimage?
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Combining two hashing functions

I have been working on a Bloom Filter implementation recently and after a discussion with a co-worker about how many hashing functions to use I told him I was limited with using hashing functions that ...
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Keyed digest function with odds of collision below the birthday bound?

I wonder if it is possible to devise a function $F(K,S,R_S)\mapsto D$ where: $K$ is some key (I have freedom on $K$, it could even be generated by a trusted party); $S$ is in $\{0,1\}^s$, say ...
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Can the XOR of two non-collision-resistant hashes be collision resistant?

Suppose I have two hash functions, of which neither (or only one) is collision resistant, and I want to create a new hash function by taking the bitwise exclusive or (XOR) of the results of those two ...
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are ideal hashes possible to create?

In a hash function, you map an input of arbitrary length to an output of finite length such that the relationship is one-to-one (or at least that's what you are trying to achieve). Hence, isn't it ...
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79 views

collision resistant summarizer for long hash values

how we can summarize SHA-256 into shorter values when we for example can't handle more than 128 bits on system? its better just use first 128bit and ignore the rest of bits or split full value and XOR ...
3
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255 views

File Hash of Encrypted File

Simple question. I have a source file and I have encrypted it with a certain public key. If I take this exact same source file, encrypt it with the exact same key a few hours later would the file hash ...
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What are the pros/cons of using symmetric crypto vs. hash in a commitment scheme?

In a commitment scheme, are there any differences on using a symmetric cipher versus using a hash? If at the "opening", I have to reveal $r$ (a random number concatenated with the messaged at the ...
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95 views

Would this prevent FNV1a 32 bit hash collision?

I am considering the FNV1a 32 bit hash as part of a simple software security and authentication system. I am aware that FNV1a is NOT ideal but it may suit my needs. I am aware that FNV1a has rather ...
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91 views

Does it make sense to stretch non-keys?

I was thinking about stretching salt. Key-stretching is good against brute force guessing and assumes your system isn't compromised. Salting a one-way makes it so you have to compute * n for each ...
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If H(m) = 0 for some m, how can a DSA signature be forged?

If we know for some message $m$ that $H(m) = 0$, how can we forge a DSA signature with only the public key? I got that $g^s*r = (g^x)^r$ where $x$ is the private key, but that's one equation with 2 ...
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Is the composition of collision resistant hash with non collision resistant hash a collision resistant hash?

Suppose $h_1$ is collision resistant, and $h_2$ isn't. Will $h(x)=h_2(h_1(x))$ always be collision resistant? [Edited:] the output of h2 must be uniformly distributed
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Splitting a password for dual roles [duplicate]

I would like to prompt users for a single passphrase to establish trust with separate, normally (but not always) complementary systems from one password input. I'm essentially looking for a box where ...
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145 views

Publicly exposed hash of private key

Would exposing a cryptographic hash function's digest (e.g. SHA-3) of RSA private key data compromise the key? If so, what are the possible (cryptanalysis-) vectors for attacking the key if an ...
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256 views

Convert a number to sha-1

I have a task to find a the message for which the SHA-1 hash's last 11 symbols in hexadecimal presentation corresponds to an 11-digit number. I have been given the following example solution: For ...
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232 views

scrypt and bcrypt for benefits of both?

I've been reading about bcrypt and scrypt, and it seems that the general consensus is that bcrypt is more "tried and true", but scrypt is better in theory. Couldn't you just hash something with ...
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How do you construct a practical full-domain hash function?

I am looking for practical constructions for Full Domain Hash. I have read Random Oracles are Practical by M. Bellare and P. Rogaway, the construction suggested on page 8, under "Uniformity: a ...
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Design requirements for a keyed hash function?

I am actually preparing for a cryptography exam, and I found a question asked by the professor in the class, below are the lines that I copied from the slide : Example: Let $Ek$ be the encryption ...
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Tamper-evident audit logs

I want to be able to detect tampering in a log file that is under the control of an untrusted party. I am not interested in secrecy, only the integrity of the contents in the file - so I want to ...
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Why are the initial states of hashes functions (like SHA-1) often non-zero?

There is already a question asking "Why initialize SHA1 with specific buffer?" and my question follows on from this: Why are the initial states of hash functions often non-zero? For most, I have ...
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Merkle-Damgard transform: necessity of the Length block [duplicate]

The Merkel-Damgard transform append the message length (in blocks) to the message itself and then computing the 'chained hash' algorithm. Does the last block (which contains the length of the ...
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312 views

How to put the hash of a PDF file in the PDF file? [duplicate]

I know it sounds strange.. but, are there any ways in practice to put the hash of a PDF file in the PDF file? And after geting the hash in the PDF file - if someone would do a hash check of the PDF ...
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Why xor the message into the state for sponge hashes?

Sponge hashes like Keccak(SHA-3) and CubeHash, xor a message block into part of the internal state. Why use a reversible operation like xor for that, instead of replacing that part of the state with ...
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SHA-1 Keyed Hash Function

I know that SHA-1 is an unkeyed cryptographic hash function when used in practice. But, in the theory, all hash function are defined with keys. My question is: How I will be able to formalize the ...
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Is there a cryptographic hash function that can be performed with pencil and paper?

Imagine I'm signing up for the 99th new web site this month. I somehow take my secret key (which I have written down on a card in my wallet) and the domain name of the site and feed them both into ...
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Explicit Key SHA-1

I'm reading “Collision-Resistant Hashing? Towards Making UOWHFs Practical” and in the Section 2 it says: Hash functions like MD5 or SHA-1 have no explicit key. But no notion of ...
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MD5 theoretical question

Ok, so this is a very possible stupid question, but one of those things that has sat at the back of my mind for a while. We all know that MD5 has issues, and these have been known for about a decade. ...
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Why is appending the key to a mesage and then hashing that insecure if the hash isn't weakly collision resistant? [duplicate]

Suppose I have H(M|K) and that H is not weakly collision resistant. If I have a message mac pair (M,MAC), how is it possible to find another message mac pair (M2,MAC2)? My thinking for this problem is ...
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114 views

What security differences are there between E(p',“well-known-plaintext”) vs. hash(p') where p'=KDF(p)

I am using a KDF to derive a key, p' from a password p. I would like to know if the password is correct before using the derived ...
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499 views

Hash functions throughput performance [closed]

Without taking into account security, which hash function is the fastest one among the following: MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2 (for various internal size), Keccak, and other… ?
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Using a Hash as a secure PRNG

I was just looking at some NIST PRNG recommendations, specifically at Hash_DRBG. I read briefly through the algorithm, and even though it is not overly complex, it still seems unnecessary to me. I ...
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HMAC vs Encrypted Hash

What is best to use (for message integrity) between… AES(Data) + HMAC(Data) AES(Data + HMAC(Data)) AES(Data + Hash(Data)) …and why?
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Hash of multiset of values, which lets me compute the hash of the union

Cryptographic hash functions normally take as input a bitstring. I am looking for a hash function that takes as input a finite multiset of values. In other words, given $S \subset \{0,1\}^*$, I want ...
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How does use of HMAC affect hash function combiners?

In the comments of this question, Ricky Demer proposes a function $HMAX$ to combine two $HMAC$s based on different hash functions: $HMAX_{H0,H1}(⟨k_0,k_1⟩,m) = HMAC_{H0}(k_0,m) \oplus ...