A cryptographic hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inputs with the same output, or reconstruct the input from the output.

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816 views

Why do we append the length of the message in SHA-1 pre-processing?

As we know, SHA-1 is irreversible, so why do we append the length of the message to the preimage?
2
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1answer
57 views

Weaker Notion of Target Collision Resistance

I'm reading the paper “Collision-Resistant Hashing? Towards Making UOWHFs Practical” which states: While it might be easy to find a collision $M,M'$ in $F_K$ by making both $M,M'$ depend on $K$ ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Why are the constants so simple in Keccak?

Keccak, the construction selected for SHA-3 is very interesting. It seems unlike other primitives and has chosen very simple constants. (Keccak talk PDF) The initial values of the state in Keccak is ...
4
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1answer
161 views

How do you find the inverse degree of a hash function?

I am trying to learn cryptanalysis on the Keccak hash function. One of the papers on zero sum distinguishers talks about Keccak having inverse degree of 3. I am unable to figure this out: how do you ...
3
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2answers
282 views

Breaking a PRNG Scheme

Assume the following scheme for a PRNG generating decimals in [0,100) Given a message and a key, compute tag := HMAC512(message, key). Take the first 5 hexadecimal characters of the tag. If the ...
5
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2answers
189 views

Can passwords be stored securely so that a similarity comparison can be made?

On the Pro Webmasters StackExchange site, someone asked a question about a webapp (in this case cPanel) that refused to allow a password change because it was too similar to a previous password. I ...
14
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4answers
1k views

What security do Cryptographic Sponges offer against generic quantum attacks?

In the face of non-quantum attacker, Keccak[r=1088,c=512] with 512 bits of output provides: Collision resistance up to $2^{256}$ operations Preimage resistance up to $2^{256}$ operations Second ...
2
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1answer
222 views

How is HKDF-Expand better than a simple hash?

Why do we need HKDF-Expand if we can simply hash the pseudorandom key to make it longer? The docs (in the link) say: The second stage "expands" the pseudorandom key to the desired length... ...
5
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1answer
231 views

What are the pros and cons of deterministic site-specific password generation from a master pass?

I've been reading up a bit on deterministic password generators. All the ones I can find basically do something like this: Pick a master username and a master passphrase. The username could be your ...
1
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1answer
66 views

What is the padding scheme for the original Tiger hash?

The specification doesn't seem to indicate how to pad messages to the requisite 512-bit boundary. What is the padding scheme for the original Tiger hash?
1
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1answer
70 views

Secret key model for a compression function cryptanalysis?

How do we analyze the security of a compression function in the secret key model? More formally, let $H$ be a hash function and $F(IV,M)$ its compression function. Suppose we generate a MAC as ...
2
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0answers
183 views

A fast non-cryptographic hash function that is “strong enough”?

I'm designing a simple one-time-password mechanism for authentication against a possibly-insecure server - i.e. I don't want to use symmetric shared secrets. The first idea that came into mind was ...
5
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2answers
589 views

What happens to entropy after hashing?

What happens to entropy after hashing? Suppose you have a key with entropy $k$. Can entropy $k$ be increased by hashing the key?
1
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1answer
144 views

Question about SHA-2 (and potentially similar hashing algorithms)

I have been educating myself recently about the SHA-2 hashing algorithm, and in the midst of this pursuit, I've encountered a question: This algorithm uses a set of constant hexadecimal values, ...
1
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1answer
210 views

Hash 22 byte secret into 512 bit hash: Full entropy?

Does it make sense to hash a 22 byte secret (which may not have full entropy since it is chosen by the user) into a 512 bit hash (using Keccak-512)? More precisely, will the 512 bit hash have full ...
6
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5answers
429 views

Asymmetric algorithm to generate compact unique messages that can be validated

I have a cryptographic problem with the following characteristics: I need to generate a set of relatively short messages; say 20 bytes in length The contents of the messages themselves is not ...
3
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1answer
187 views

Is SHA-256 safe when used in this way?

I am wondering whether an attacker can gain any useful information from having several hashes of an unknown plaintext that differs in relatively few bits. For example, if provided with: ...
6
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2answers
101 views

Does having multiple hash iterations of the same message weaken your original message security?

Take a hash function H() to be something like SHA-256 and message m. If you are given H(m) ...
5
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1answer
75 views

What is significance of recovering the chaining value of a hash compression function?

What is significance of recovering the chaining value of a compression function, when the message and its output are known? in other words, if a compression function $CF$ takes a chaining value ...
1
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1answer
1k views

What is the difference between SHA256WITHRSA and SHA256WITHRSAENCRYPTION digest algorithms?

I installed djigzo on my android phone and I want to use it for smime mail. I don't know the difference between choosing SHA256WITHRSA and ...
3
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1answer
176 views

Password hashing in /etc/shadow

Passwords hashed under Unix/Linux systems can use several hashing algorithms. ...
2
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1answer
72 views

Keyed-hash of a lot of small numbers

Let's say I have a list of several million numbers, with only 6-9 digits of secret information per number (this means that an attacker might efficiently guess the other digits). I have to store the ...
6
votes
2answers
276 views

Why do I need to add the original salt to each hash iteration of a password?

I understand it is important to hash passwords over multiple iterations to make things harder for an attacker. I have read numerous times that when processing these iterations, it is critical to hash ...
0
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0answers
35 views

In Merkle Damgard Constructoin, why do we add another block with value of number of blocks? [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand how can we find collisions, in simpler Merkle-Damgard constructions. consider my question as, what are the collisions for these cases of Merkle-Damgard constructions: we pad ...
6
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1answer
265 views

Formal definition of “explicit” algorithm?

A long time ago, I read that the definition of "cryptographic hash function" is "collision-resistant one-way function". (A similar definition shows up in the FIPS standards for SHA-1 etc.) But this ...
5
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1answer
242 views

Can you help me understand hash-preserving encryption?

I have rather simplistic understanding of cryptography, so I have to beg a pardon in advance if the question has internal contradictions. Imagine data $A$ with a hash $hashA$. This data is encrypted ...
3
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2answers
296 views

unique one-way hash

For a 10-digits numeric domain (swedish social security numbers), is there a hash function with the following properties? no two numbers result in the same hash it is not possible to deduce the ...
4
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2answers
272 views

Hash function based on block cipher (and proof of security in the PRP model)

Do there exist proofs of security for primitives like hash functions (based on a block cipher) in the PRP model. I often see proofs in the random oracle model (for hash function based on compression ...
2
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3answers
634 views

Salts, how does the script know what the salt is?

I am new to PHP programming and trying to grasp the idea of hashing and encryption for protecting passwords, credit card details and such. I've done a lot of reading about MD5 which I think I ...
2
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1answer
98 views

Proof of shared secret through key derivation

Alice gives a random key $K$ (e.g. 32 bytes long) to Bob through a secure channel. Bob want to prove to Alice through an unsecured channel that he knows the key. Is it secure for Bob to send ...
2
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1answer
70 views

Dependence on Keyed Hash Function

I'm reading the paper “Collision-Resistant Hashing? Towards Making UOWHFs Practical” which states: With an ACR hash function $F$ the key $K$ is announced and the adversary wins if she manages to ...
1
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3answers
694 views

Hash function based on pseudorandom functions and security

Are there hash functions that make use of pseudorandom functions. Precisely, I'm looking for a specification of a hash function based on PRF (and based on the security of such a primitive).
2
votes
1answer
102 views

With Encrypt-then-MAC, and flexible protocols, do I need to authenticate the authentication?

Sorry, the question is not easy to state (or wasn't for me, anyhow). So I'm writing a very flexible format for security. It allows for full choice of cipher, key size, and so on, along with key ...
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2answers
982 views

How many possible input files are there who's length can be stored in 63-bits?

I'm trying to calculate how many possible combinations of files there can be using a signed 64-bit file length, but can't seem to find a formula (or I'm using the wrong keywords). For example, the ...
6
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1answer
191 views

How can uniformity of hash functions (e.g. SHA-256) be proved?

In reading about the Bitcoin protocol I noticed how much its proofs-of-work apparently depend on uniformity of the SHA-256 hash function. And so presumably do many other applications. How do ...
5
votes
1answer
131 views

What does pseudo pre-image of a hash function mean?

So finding a pre-image means given the hash value, one tries to find a message that gives this value using the function's standard IV. What about pseudo-preimage?
3
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1answer
105 views

Combining two hashing functions

I have been working on a Bloom Filter implementation recently and after a discussion with a co-worker about how many hashing functions to use I told him I was limited with using hashing functions that ...
4
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1answer
179 views

Keyed digest function with odds of collision below the birthday bound?

I wonder if it is possible to devise a function $F(K,S,R_S)\mapsto D$ where: $K$ is some key (I have freedom on $K$, it could even be generated by a trusted party); $S$ is in $\{0,1\}^s$, say ...
6
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2answers
395 views

Can the XOR of two non-collision-resistant hashes be collision resistant?

Suppose I have two hash functions, of which neither (or only one) is collision resistant, and I want to create a new hash function by taking the bitwise exclusive or (XOR) of the results of those two ...
2
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1answer
56 views

are ideal hashes possible to create?

In a hash function, you map an input of arbitrary length to an output of finite length such that the relationship is one-to-one (or at least that's what you are trying to achieve). Hence, isn't it ...
1
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1answer
80 views

collision resistant summarizer for long hash values

how we can summarize SHA-256 into shorter values when we for example can't handle more than 128 bits on system? its better just use first 128bit and ignore the rest of bits or split full value and XOR ...
3
votes
1answer
269 views

File Hash of Encrypted File

Simple question. I have a source file and I have encrypted it with a certain public key. If I take this exact same source file, encrypt it with the exact same key a few hours later would the file hash ...
3
votes
3answers
389 views

What are the pros/cons of using symmetric crypto vs. hash in a commitment scheme?

In a commitment scheme, are there any differences on using a symmetric cipher versus using a hash? If at the "opening", I have to reveal $r$ (a random number concatenated with the messaged at the ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Would this prevent FNV1a 32 bit hash collision?

I am considering the FNV1a 32 bit hash as part of a simple software security and authentication system. I am aware that FNV1a is NOT ideal but it may suit my needs. I am aware that FNV1a has rather ...
1
vote
1answer
91 views

Does it make sense to stretch non-keys?

I was thinking about stretching salt. Key-stretching is good against brute force guessing and assumes your system isn't compromised. Salting a one-way makes it so you have to compute * n for each ...
0
votes
0answers
145 views

If H(m) = 0 for some m, how can a DSA signature be forged?

If we know for some message $m$ that $H(m) = 0$, how can we forge a DSA signature with only the public key? I got that $g^s*r = (g^x)^r$ where $x$ is the private key, but that's one equation with 2 ...
0
votes
2answers
105 views

Is the composition of collision resistant hash with non collision resistant hash a collision resistant hash?

Suppose $h_1$ is collision resistant, and $h_2$ isn't. Will $h(x)=h_2(h_1(x))$ always be collision resistant? [Edited:] the output of h2 must be uniformly distributed
1
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2answers
137 views

Splitting a password for dual roles [duplicate]

I would like to prompt users for a single passphrase to establish trust with separate, normally (but not always) complementary systems from one password input. I'm essentially looking for a box where ...
2
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2answers
146 views

Publicly exposed hash of private key

Would exposing a cryptographic hash function's digest (e.g. SHA-3) of RSA private key data compromise the key? If so, what are the possible (cryptanalysis-) vectors for attacking the key if an ...
0
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2answers
271 views

Convert a number to sha-1

I have a task to find a the message for which the SHA-1 hash's last 11 symbols in hexadecimal presentation corresponds to an 11-digit number. I have been given the following example solution: For ...