Random data used by block cipher modes of operation to randomize the output in order to achieve semantic security. Also for other similar constructs in other iterative algorithms.

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What is Initialization vector (IV)

I am not the best cryptologer and therefore I have some questions so I learn more and get better. Heres the questions: What is Initialization vector (IV)? MUST I use it or not?
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Why should an Initialization Vector (IV) be supplied externally

My software uses a 3rd party encryption appliance. One of the capabilities they allow is for client software to supply an IV. i have been trying to understand - why would they not generate a random ...
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How to generate initial vectors during DPA attack on stream cipher in real life?

I was trying to understand the procedure of the DPA attack on Stream cipher (like Mickey-128). I learned that, the attacker need to build hypothetical power consumption matrix with different initial ...
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Keepass Twofish plugin security

Keepass is a well known open-source password manager program, with plugin support. One of the offered plugin is a twofish encryption mode of operation in lieu of the build-in AES algorithm ...
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IV and Headers inside cipher text

I am a bit confused about the use of IV, and key hash. Is the key hash and IV stored inside the headers of the cipher text? Isn't it a security risk to store this header information? By key hash I ...