# Tagged Questions

In cryptography, a key derivation function (or KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key or other known information such as a password or passphrase using a pseudo-random function. Keyed cryptographic hash functions are popular examples of pseudo-random functions ...

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### Memory hard password based key derivation functions?

How are memory hard functions designed for the purpose of password based key derivation? To protect against a brute force attack from a parallel machine. What design could work well with Skein? The ...
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### Storing password or derived key in keychain?

Currently I am developing an application that stores and reads encrypted data. The data is encrypted with AES and the actual AES key is derived from the users password (and some nonce) with PBKDF2 ...
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### Bitwise method of generating r for RSA-KEM

It seems that RSA-KEM has a very troublesome method of generating the secret $r$. It seems that the random value needs to be in the range $0 \le r \le {n - 1}$. Now most cryptographic environments ...
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### How does FileVault2 Recovery actually work?

I'm a crypto-enthusiast but no expert at all, that'll explain why i didn't understand. Also please consider english isn't my native language :) I am about to enable FileVault2 FDE on the new macbook ...
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### ECIES: Purpose of optional shared information?

According to Wikipedia the ECIES algorithm has two optional shared information $S_1$ and $S_2$. They are used as follows: Generate a random shared secret $Z$ according to ECIES, which will never be ...
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### Need help with PKCS#12 3 key triple des key expansion

I am trying to decrypt PKCS8-Shrouded Key Bag inside a PKCS#12 pfx file. The oid for the encrypted data is PbeWithSHAAnd3-KeyTripleDES CBC. Iteration count and salt has been provided within the pfx ...
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### ECDH security when no KDF is used

Let's suppose our device performs ECDH with a fixed, unknown, private key $prv$. It accepts as input any point $Q$ lying in the proper subgroup of the proper ellipict curve, then computes: $P = prv*Q$...
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### Hardening of random number generators

Boxcryptor uses various CSPRNGs and apparently hashes the output using PBKDF2 to derive the final key. Even though the choice of ...
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### How do I generate decryption keys for the IDEA algorithm from the 128 bit key?

I am trying to implement IDEA algorithm in C#, just to learn how it works. I have taken a 128 bit binary key and generated the 52 encryption keys using the following code: ...
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### Password manager that uses a mix of long and short key derivation functions

I was reading "A Convenient Method for Securely Managing Passwords, Halderman et al., 2005". In short, the authors say to do the following: ...
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### What is transaction capacity of a POS using 3DES DUKPT?

I am looking for the transaction capacity of a Point-Of-Sale device using 3DES DUKPT. Once all keys derived from the future key set are exhausted (1M or 500K?), how will the POS be reloaded with a new ...
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### key hierarchy management and master key

I have this equation, $E_{K_{as}}(E_{K_{bs}}(K_{ab}))$ which means $K_{ab}$ is encrypted by $K_{bs}$ then whole packet is encrypted by $K_{as}$. I think the key structure is $K_{as}$ is the master ...
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### Why is it so hard to make a good KDF?

Why are we stuck with only 2-3 KDF functions since KDFs don't imply mathematically conceiving a cryptographic primitive like the inner workings of AES or SHA but instead build a system out of existing ...
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### Key diversification is a good alternative?

This is just a concept question that I need to clarify, I know that you can use key diversification as an alternative to store different symmetric keys in a database. Key diversification uses a "...
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### NIST SP800-108 KDF modes comparison

According to NIST SP800-108, there are three modes that can build KDF from PRF: counter mode, feedback mode and double-pipeline iteration mode. Assume that the same PRF and input distribution are used,...
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### Symmetrical Block Encryption with Synchronised Remote Key Change

I'm considering a theoretical design of a walkie talkie, with strong encryption. My current idea is to use symmetrical block encryption, but with the key changing at regular time intervals without a ...