Key exchange protocols allow two parties to produce a secret session key over a public channel.

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Is encrypting a public key with a symmetric key safe?

Assume the sender wants to share their ephemeral/long-term public key with intended receiver only and both share symmetric key. Is it secure to encrypt the (full/partial) public key (of RSA, ECC) ...
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Are there any differences in operation between existing Diffie-Hellman specifications?

Are there any differences in operation between existing Diffie-Hellman specifications, especially those within the RSA PKCS#3, ANSI X9.42 and RFC 2631 standards?
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Can Diffie-Hellman generate values in a specified range?

Is there any way to generate values only between $0$ and $255$ with the Diffie-Hellman method? I need to create keys for communication algorithms with $32$ and $16$ numbers between that range. The ...
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2answers
183 views

Where does the meaning of reduction to a hard problem lie?

Given you a protocol, if we can reduce breaking the protocol to a hard problem, such as DLP or CDH, then we can say that this protocol is secure. Theoretically speaking, reduction is a good method ...
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199 views

Are there any protocols that are truly secure from active and passive MITM attacks?

Are there are any cryptographic protocols or algorithms that can prevent active MITM attacks or interference when initiating a new connection to a server or someone you have not exchange keys with ...
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Matrix key exchange

Given is a square matrix $M$ over a field $F$, we have a key exchange with the following conditions: Person $X$ sends a message to Person $Y$: $C_{1}=AM$, where $A$ is a randomly chosen square ...
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357 views

Constructing secure key exchange protocol

I have $\Pi=(Gen,Enc,Dec)$ and let it be semantically secure public-key encryption scheme. Security parameter is $n$, then the message space of plaintext is always $\lbrace 0, 1 \rbrace^n$. By using ...
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278 views

ID-based key exchange protocol with PFS

The traditional authenticated DH protocol with PFS against active adversaries, ensures that the compromise of both party's long-term private keys after the session is completed will not help the ...
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What's the difference between the long term key and the session keys?

I'm currently studying secret key cryptography, and I've come across the terms "long-term key" and "session key". What's the difference between these two kinds of keys?
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195 views

What authentication techniques can be used by QKD Systems?

As it is well known that QKD systems are prone to simple MITM attacks… what authentication techniques are being used in QKD to prevent those attacks in practice?
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Is public-key cryptography the only option in this scenario?

Two parties: a client and a server are to a agree on a symmetric key. Both the client and the server are aware of a master password. The way this is currently done ...
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279 views

how to mathematically prove a key exchange algorithm [closed]

I want to know the basic methodology that can be used to prove that a key exchange algorithm is secure. I am not asking about any specific algorithm. I want to know what should be proven and how to ...
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79 views

Advise key management protocol

Assume that sender and recipient both already have each others public keys(certificates). Sender needs to generate session key to encrypt some data and sends encrypted data to recipient. All offline - ...
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465 views

some of my confusions about DDH assumption

The wiki defines the decisional Diffie–Hellman assumption as follows: Decisional Diffie–Hellman assumption Consider a (multiplicative) cyclic group $G$ of order $q$, and with generator $g$. The DDH ...
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How is the key shared in symmetric key cryptography?

Symmetric key cryptography is an encryption system in which the sender and receiver of a message share a single, common key that is used to encrypt and decrypt the message. Is the key public or it is ...
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807 views

What key exchange do OpenSSL and CryptoAPI prefer by default?

Here is what I know. When I connect to a brand-new Linux Web server with Chrome and click the "lock" icon, the key exchange algorithm is described as "ECDHE_RSA". (Yes I know what that is.) When I ...
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What is the “shared secret” used for in IPSec VPN?

Can somebody explain what the "shared secret" and "password" do when opening/creating a VPN tunnel? In this specific case I setup a VPN to my Fritz!Box and I had to provide a shared secret (which was ...
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133 views

Three-way key exchange with elliptic curves without pairing

Assume that there are three users, each with their own secret key $d_i$ and the corresponding public key $Q_i = d_i \cdot P$, such that $Q_i$ is a point on an elliptic curve and $P$ is a base point on ...
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147 views

Does there exist a two-pass AKE protocol that is secure in eCK model and also has PFS?

As we can know that the best two-pass AKE protocols with DH message can achieve is the weak form of perfect forward security (wPFS) which guarantees security against the passive adversary. But ...
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434 views

Clipper chip (SKIPJACK) key exchange protocol

According to the Wikipedia page for NSA (emphasis mine): However, NSA's Fortezza hardware-based encryption cards, created for the Clipper project, are still used within government, and NSA ...
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96 views

Send a message to an entire group of recipients

I'm attempting to send a message to a group of recipients, through an untrusted intermediary. Each of the recipients will have been invited to the group by someone who already has a trusted public ...
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153 views

using random encrypted RSA challenge as key material

Assume a simple protocol for authentication - one side sends a randomly generated challenge string and encrypts it with RSA. The receiver decrypts it and replies with a hash of the challenge, proving ...
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373 views

Is asynchronous perfect forward secrecy possible?

DH key agreement protocols require the participation of both parties, so are only suitable for synchronous connections. Is it possible to implement PFS in a fashion usable for asynchronous protocols, ...
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is this authenticated key exchange protocol sound? too complicated? obviously flawed?

(significantly reworded this question to fit better into crypto.se). I have static RSA keypairs for both sides and an encrypted transport that needs symmetric keys, and need to exchange session keys. ...
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What should the size of the private exponents in Diffie-Hellman key exchange for TLS be? [duplicate]

I'm using TLS with a Diffie-Hellman key exchange to negotiate the symmetric keys. How long should the exponents be?
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Password checking algorithm

I'm trying to reverse engineer key exchange protocol and faced with the following problem: Protocol is based on Diffie-Hellman key exchange method: g - generator m - modulus Alice: a - private key $A ...
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659 views

What are the potential security impacts of using CRAM-MD5 for Emails, when not using an SSL connection?

Background: My current server-provider tells me it's no problem to store the passwords in plain-text in the database, saying he has to do so because they use CRAM-MD5 for email authentication. But ...
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Key Exchange and anonymity issue

If Alice (sender) sends a private message embedded with public key of the Bob(recipient) through onion network, so in this key exchange, does Bob remains anonymous to Alice as Alice knows about the ...
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Where to store the private key and the public key in a communication protocol

I want to create a simple secured connection protocol over TCP/IP. I just want to connect from my mobile device to a server securely. Firstly I thought to use an SSL connection, but I changed my ...
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303 views

Is this method for exchanging private key using RSA sound?

Bob know's Alice's public key, and he wants to make sure he's connecting to the one which has that key. Furthermore, Alice wants to verify when she gets a connection from Bob who'll give his public ...
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579 views

Why are RSA keys encoded with ASN.1 for TLS?

Browser vendors use ASN.1 encoding for RSA certificates in the TLS protocol. RSA public keys are just a number, so why do we need encode them to something else? That increases the risk of security ...
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202 views

Do Quantum Key Distribution and Physical Unclonable Functions combine, and how?

I see there's a project to combine Quantum Key Distribution, Physical Unclonable Functions, and classical crypto, in order to secure a high speed (100Gb/s) optical link. While there does not seem to ...
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183 views

SSL Key Exchange

I read briefly over the TSL/SSL key exchange protocol. I have to wonder about the whole pre-master-key procedure. Wouldn't it be sufficient if the client or server encrypted a generated session key ...
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Computer appliance protocol

I build the computer appliance system that consist of software server and multiple controllers. The system I want to build must be pluggable in the sense that when I connect a controller C to the ...
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281 views

Ways to protect flash player against MITM diffie hellman

We have a server, which sends content encrypted with AES128 or RC4 to a flash client over an insecure HTTP channel. The encryption key is negotiated using Diffie Hellman. The problem: Diffie ...
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Can one generalize the Diffie-Hellman key exchange to three or more parties?

Does anyone know how to do a Diffie-Hellman or ECDH key exchange with more than two parties? I know how to do a key exchange between 2 parties, but I need to be able to have a key agreement between 3 ...
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Is it possible to ensure security with zero pre-shared information?

Is it possible to secure a communications channel against both passive (sniffing) and active (injecting / MitM) attackers without either legitimate party knowing any pre-shared information? I know ...
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345 views

Does Identity-Based Encryption actually solve any problem?

Identity based encryption schemes [*] seem to have great potential in high-latency Delay-Tolerant and mobile, ad-hoc networks since they apparently seem to avoid the need for key negotiation and ...
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Verilog simulation & synthesis of Diffie-Hellman key exchange

Is there any freely available verilog implementaion of Diffie-Hellman key exchange? I couldn't find anything using google. So, assuming its not there I started implementing on my own. The code is ...
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Trouble with diffie-hellman groups

Is anyone able to point me towards a known-to-be-good diffie-hellman group? I currently use group 24 (RFC5114, 2048-bit MODP Group with 256-bit Prime Order Subgroup). It came to me that this group is ...
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Can a user of a password-protected Wi-Fi sniff on other user's communication?

Imagine a Wi-Fi network protected by WEP/WPA/WPA2. Users can join the network in case they know the pre-shared key of the access point. Is it possible for a user A (who has successfully logged into ...
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How should I check the received ephemeral Diffie-Hellman public keys?

In my application I'm doing a DH key exchange, where both sides generate their own ephemeral key. No static keys are used. I am trying to make my application resistant against an active attack and ...
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Why do we need asymmetric algorithms for key exchange?

In SSL protocols, both symmetric and asymmetric algorithms are used. Why is it so? The symmetric algorithms are more secure and easier to implement. Why are asymmetric algorithms usually preferred in ...
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Is EKE attackable by a brute-force password search?

So I'm trying to properly implement the EKE protocol and I'm using C# with the Windows CNG and ECDH key exchange. I need to use this because it's FIPS certified and all that jazz. So what I'm ...
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830 views

Generalizing the conversion of Diffie-Hellman to El Gamal

How can we generalize the conversion of Diffie-Hellman to El Gamal public-key encryption scheme? The goals is to be eventually able to show that any 2-round key-exchange protocol can be converted into ...
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How does the wider cryptographic community view non-abelian group based cryptography?

Is there perhaps some neural expository article on crypto systems based on non-abelian groups? I've gleaned that Anshel–Anshel–Goldfeld key exchange is the most well-known cryptographic algorithm ...
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315 views

Derived Shared Key vs Distinct Keys?

I've seen a lot of 2-party applications that derive a shared key from distinct keys created by each party. Why is this technique employed? Would it not be better to use those two distinct keys for ...
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Does the generator size matter in Diffie-Hellman?

For the Diffie-Hellman protocol I've heard that the generator 3 is as safe as any other generator. Yet, 32-bit or 256-bit exponents are sometimes used as generators. What is the benefit of using ...
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Is HTTPS secure if someone snoops the initial handshake?

Let's say I'm on an open wireless network that's being actively sniffed and I connect to an HTTPS site. Even though my subsequent traffic is encrypted, couldn't the sniffer use the data from the ...