usually secret information used as input to various kinds of cryptographic algorithms, like encryption, signature, MAC, to select the concrete transformation done by the algorithm.

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163 views

Intuition for random variables in cryptography

I have a simple question about the use of random variables for encryption schemes, to make sure my intuition is correct. We say $P(K = k)$ to represent the probability that a particular key $k$ is ...
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1answer
423 views

Key-size of encryption method

Is there a definied keysize to be used with the "AES_256-CBC" method in PHP, and what is the size? Some background: I want to store encrypted text into a PostgreSQL database. The user who posts the ...
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1answer
2k views

AES AddRoundKey

Looking at the first step of AES encryption I see that we XOR the key with the plaintext block. Why is the actual key involved at all, why not just use the round keys derived from the key schedule?
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1answer
320 views

Which encodings have |encoding key| >> |decoding key|?

I'm looking for an encoding scheme that requires a very large encoding key E (>10MB) and suffices with a relatively small decoding key ...
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0answers
49 views

AES-128/192 safer than AES-256 in practice? [duplicate]

Related-key attacks can break AES-192 and AES-256 with complexities 2^176 and 2^99.5, respectively. Quote from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Encryption_Standard It seems that more ...
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1answer
72 views

Questions about updating the secret key of RSA?

I want to update the secret key of RSA. I understand there exists a common modular attack on RSA. Precisely, if adversary knows $(e_1, m^{e_1})$ and $(e_2, m^{e_2})$, where $e_1$ and $e_2$ are the ...
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1answer
100 views

Attacker in a key exchange

I'm having trouble with the following question: $X(A) \rightarrow B:(A,N_X)$ $B \rightarrow X(S):(B,((A,N_X,T_B),K_{BS}),N_B)$ $X(A) \rightarrow B:(((A,N_X,T_B),K_{BS}),(N_B,N_X))$ ...
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1answer
77 views

Many single-time use keys encryption scheme (not Shamir's Shared Secret)

I'm looking for encryption scheme with the following properties: There's a sequence of keys that can be used to decrypt the message Strictly only one key from the sequence is required to decrypt the ...
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0answers
57 views

exchanging private key between service and iPhone app - digital signing

I need to do digital signing of my request data which will be sent to the server. My server sends distinct private keys to her clients after authentication and expects all responses to be digitally ...
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2answers
192 views

Public key Issue - same key pair as existing one? [duplicate]

My question is a bit naive, but what if someone generates the same RSA key pair as someone else? This person would have the same private key and so would be able to decrypt messages not intended to ...
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1answer
76 views

x509 CA trust question

I'm trying to understand the logic of CAs, trust and client certificates. I have a general understanding but am having a tough time bridging some gaps. In a hypothetical situation a software system ...
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0answers
308 views

Hill cipher key space

Key space is the set of all possible keys that can be used to generate a key. We using the number of valid key to describe it. I've given a hill cipher of block size $k$ over alphabet of size $p$, ...
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0answers
54 views

Random numbers for Master Key and Key_block

Exploration through RFCs concludes that random numbers used in the creation of Master Key and Key Block(Key material for Encryption Key and Mac Secret) are from ServerHello.random and ...
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0answers
84 views

When do I need to renew keys for Salsa20 or HMAC?

I currently have a system which uses two keys sourced from a single key subjected to HKDF. One key is used in the Salsa20 stream ...
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0answers
86 views

Perfect Forward Secrecy in MTI/A0

Would the property of perfect forward secrecy still be achieved in MTI/A0 for a session key that was established between C and D when one LL-key aD is revealed so that both LL-keys aC and aD are ...
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0answers
200 views

IV and Headers inside cipher text

I am a bit confused about the use of IV, and key hash. Is the key hash and IV stored inside the headers of the cipher text? Isn't it a security risk to store this header information? By key hash I ...
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0answers
95 views

can permutation matrix be found in parallel processing technique?

Let us say there exists a permutation matrix $n \times n$ for some large $n$. Then, there are $n!$ possible permutations. If one to use brute-force to find the secret permutation among $n!$ ...
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0answers
175 views

How is key rotation defined?

I'm aware that it's advisable to rotate cryptographic keys periodically. HKDF accepts high-entropy input (IKM - Input Key Material), and expands it to an arbitrary length. It also accepts a salt, ...
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2answers
147 views

Given infinite unencrypted and encrypted texts, can I find the algorithm?

Given an infinite amount of both unencrypted and the corresponding encrypted text, would I be able to calculate the algorithm? I am relative new to cryptography and don't know if I would be able to ...
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2answers
227 views

Is there a theoretical maximum useful keysize given the block-size?

Consider a block-cipher $F$ with a $N$-bit block-size and a $M$-bit key-size. That is, if $k$ is a $M$-bit key, $p$ is a $N$-bit block of plain-text and $c$ is a $N$-bit block of cipher-text, then: ...
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2answers
490 views

One Time Pad Question

I have a ciphertext encoded with One Time Pad. I do not know the key. How can I find the possible keys which when decoded, will result in a meaningful plain text?
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1answer
743 views

True 128bit secured password length?

assume we say 128bit keys are secure so a 16 character long password is safe, but if i even use lower case and upper case letters with numbers and special characters on my keyboard its about 80 ...
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1answer
653 views

Decrypt AES-128 with key file but missing IV? [duplicate]

I want to decrypt a file that has been encrypted using AES-128 in CBC mode using OpenSSL. I got the “.key” file – which is 32 digits – but when I try to decrypt with OpenSSL, the program asks me for ...
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2answers
1k views

If I have the unencrypted text and the encrypted text, can I calculate the key?

If I have the unencrypted text and the encrypted text, can I calculate the key? It seems logical based on my limited knowledge of encryption that I should be able to... but it also seems like too ...
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2answers
118 views

The weak link is the password?

Consider a secure modern block cipher like AES/Serpent/Twofish. I hear everyone say that the complexity is $2^{128}$ for a 128 block cipher. But isn't the weak link the actual hashed and salted ...
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1answer
44 views

Are keys generated by the user or block cipher algorithms themselves? [closed]

We know block cipher algorithms. In the block cipher algorithms, Key Scheduling is the one crucial part. I see that in some simulation programs of the AES,DES,TripleDES encryption algorithms. In ...
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1answer
84 views

Spurious keys filter [closed]

Is there any possible way to filter a key space in a crypto-system to get a set of keys that decrypts out a valid text (text that is in same language or readable)? I tried a random approach and got ...
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1answer
116 views

Prime factors of non-random keys

I have been working on a challenge i found on the internet. It is as follows: You've stumbled onto a significant vulnerability in a commonly used cryptographic library. It turns out that the ...
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1answer
293 views

Key space: Dense and sparse

I'm taking a cryptography class and I come across these terms dense and sparse key space allt he time. What do they mean? As far as I can I understand, dense key space means that there are more ...
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1answer
62 views

What is the proper way to generate a fixed length key from a variable length password?

The password is entered by the user and the key is processed locally. Neither the password nor the key will be stored, only used and forgotten (but hopefully not by the user). Is SHA256 by itself ...
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1answer
39 views

HMAC tag to verify the key (verification in the reverse direction)

A quick question. Are there any problems with the following HMAC use-case: We have two entities ($A$ and $B$), both of them have a secret ($A$ has $S_0$ and $B$ has $S_1$) $A$ generates a random ...
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1answer
46 views

Linear Recurrence, keystreams, and periods

I am trying to understand the following problem: Consider the following linear recurrence over $Z_2$ of degree four: $z_{i+4} = (z_{i+3} + z_{i+2} + z_{i+1} + z_{i}) \bmod 2$ i >= 0. ...
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1answer
80 views

Encrypting a broadcast channel

We're building a data service that is expected to go out through a single "fat pipe" channel. The design requirement says that the data in the channel must be protected by authentication and ...
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0answers
24 views

Generating interactive, secure multiple ECC key pairs deterministically

In Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) assuming user A has a private public key pair of $S$, $P$ accordingly with generator point $G$ which as we know is: $$P=S*G$$ Assuming that user A wants to ...
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1answer
50 views

RSA modulus (N) from public key and calculating N from p, q not equal [closed]

I have a RSA public key in the form of public exponent and modulus as follows: ...
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0answers
11 views

Keystore and configuration file

It appears that Java Keystore is often used by web server using a configuration file, with the password opening the JKS written in it and also the password protecting the specific entry. How could ...
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0answers
40 views

Problem in understanding Blakley's Secret Sharing Scheme

I need to implement Blakley's Secret Sharing Scheme. I have read below mentioned two research papers but still unable to understand how to implement it. Safeguarding cryptographic keys Two Matrices ...
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3answers
67 views

private keys for multiple devices [closed]

I have an architecture where: a user can have multiple devices (phones) the server needs to broadcast the payload to all devices through the same channel (basically, all devices listen and receive ...
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0answers
35 views

Modifying algebraic secrecy message to use digital certificates

I have the following message: sign((M’, T$_A$, sign((encrypt((encrypt(M, $K_{pbB}$), M’), K), T$_B$), $K_{sB}$)), $K_{sA}$) Sign is used for signature generation. Encrypt is used for ...
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0answers
40 views

DES key complementation property [duplicate]

It is known that DES has the key-complementation property. That is, given any key $k$ and any message $m\in\{0,1\}^{64}$ $$\operatorname{DES}_k(m)=\overline{\operatorname{DES}_\overline k(\overline ...
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0answers
51 views

How are key length and size of group elements related?

I am reading a paper on ring signature where the author has mentioned a correlation between key length requirement and size of group elements. Can anyone hint me how he arrived at this conclusion out ...
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0answers
35 views

Is it possible to weaken a bitcoin private key by 'using' it elsewhere? [duplicate]

What are the increased possibilities (if any) of being able to crack a private key given the following: The associated bitcoin (ECDSA Secp256k1-based) public key is known. The private key has been ...
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1answer
56 views

OTP - Reuse key BUT add IV, is it secure enough?

EDIT: REUSING KEY IS SECURE! OTP - Reusing key IS SECURE! PROVED! I have already asked a similar question and now I can continue to this question about adding a "extra key" = IV. My last question ...
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1answer
63 views

How to use the key from a Diffie Hellman exchange? [closed]

I watched a YouTube video about Diffie-Hellman called "Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange", and it said after doing some modulo operations with the public modulus and generator and the random private ...
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1answer
106 views

How can the key size be calculated [closed]

If the decrypting key is 448, then what is the key size? Suppose I am encrypting a plain text with a key by choosing some random numbers between ...
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1answer
60 views

Positioning of keys in encrypted text

I'm just looking at very simple encryption. I've noticed that the key is typically either at the front or at the back of the encrypted text. This is quite easy to break if you know the key. It can ...
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1answer
338 views

Guessing encryption algorithm based on key and ciphertext

Is it possible to tell which encryption algorithm was used, assuming I have a key and a encrypted text? To not complicate the situation let assume we are speaking about symmetric algorithms only. ...
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1answer
85 views

OTP - Why not reuse key? EDITED! [duplicate]

EDIT: REUSING KEY IS SECURE! OTP - Reusing key IS SECURE! PROVED! This might sound really dumb but why is it bad/insecure too use the same key twice on One-time-pad? Question: Why and how does using ...
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0answers
34 views

Can you undrestand? [on hold]

Can you help me in this protocol what is applied of stage 3 ? $$A\rightarrow{B}\quad:K^A\quad\pmod {P}\\B\rightarrow{A}\quad:K^B\quad\pmod {P}\\ ...
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1answer
135 views

Is encryption mainly using Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange?

I know how Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange works. Is this the main way of encrypting with PGP, ssh, ssl (https), DKIM, ...? I wonder if Diffie-Hellman is the clue to understand how encryption with ...