Is the last step of an iterated cryptographic hash still as resistant to preimage attacks as the original hash?
Considering a cryptographic hash, such as MD5 or SHA2, denoted by the function $H(m)$ where $m$ is an arbitrary binary string, there is a lot of material available that deals with potential weakness ...
It is well known that MD5 is completely broken today - however, to understand the theory behind the attacks I am looking for an implementation of the collision attacks described in the 2009 paper A ...
I heard that there are 128 stochastically independent bits in an MD5 output. Is that true? If so, are there any citations or proofs for that?