A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the plain text.

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4
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2answers
286 views

Reusing message in One Time Pad

One of the main rules of the OTP is, that a key should never ever be reused. But if we use some commutative operation (XOR for example) for generating the cipher text, then I don't see any difference ...
1
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1answer
55 views

Is a stream cipher similar to One-Time Pad using hash secure?

I've read some Q&A about combining OTP with hash on this site, but I still wonder why some answers said that using hash for OTP key is not strong enough to resist brute force attack? Assuming ...
8
votes
2answers
916 views

Why would Carter-Wegman-style message authentication not be broken by P = NP?

Researching about the implications of P = NP to cryptography I found someone say that the only cryptography left standing would be the one time pad and Carter-Wegman-Style message authentication. ...
1
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1answer
153 views

Why does a one-time-pad key have to be at least as long as a message?

I am studying one time pad and find it hard to understand. What happens if the key is one bit or 100 bits shorter than the message?
2
votes
1answer
284 views

Mathematical formula for switching the key for OTP?

Instead of generating the random key for the one time pad cipher over and over again, is there a mathematical formula that allows you to switch the key to a new key? The new key must be as random and ...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Exploiting XOR one-time-pads with alphabet size that isn't a power of 2

I realized that if the key is chosen randomly from a range that isn't a power of $2$, the one-time-pad leaks information about the plaintext. For example, if the alphabet was the first 20 naturals, ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

How can I create pre-determined encrypted results?

I want my encryption results to be the lyrics to Star Spangled Banner. The original text I'm encrypting would be, for instance, the menu to a local pizza place. I know what I want my passphrase to be. ...
-2
votes
0answers
47 views

How do I decipher a text using a repeating one-time pad?

I have an encrypted message that is 582 characters long. I know that: It is in hexadecimal It has been encrypted using a one time pad The pad's length is exactly 50 characters When the pad reaches ...
3
votes
4answers
132 views

If I am about to generate one-time pad, where should I generate my pads from?

If I want to generate a few one-time pads, is it OK to just read required number of bytes from /dev/urandom without weakening information-theoretical security?
1
vote
1answer
36 views

How can I determine key length for message encrypted by many-time-pad?

For message $ m $ and key $ k $ I get encrypted message $ c $ ($ m \oplus k = c $) where $ length(k) < length(m) $. Additionally I know that message $ m $ is English text. Instead of using pure ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Truly Random Values [duplicate]

I am trying to build a one-time pad encryption software and I am thinking about simply using /dev/random to generate keys. My question is: Is it ...
15
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6answers
4k views

What is the difference between a stream cipher and a one-time-pad?

A (synchronous) stream cipher is an algorithm which maps some fixed-length key to an arbitrary-length key-stream (i.e. a sequence of bits): $C : \{0,1\}^k \to \{0,1\}^{\infty}$. This key-stream is ...
1
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1answer
29 views

What are the correct order of operations for One Time Pad Cipher?

According to Wikipedia the One Time Pad Cipher is unbreakable. On the Wikipedia page it explains how to perform this simple encryption process by hand. For the encryption it adds (+) the message and ...
1
vote
3answers
141 views

Is multiplicative blinding less secure than additive?

It's easy to see that additive blinding (e.g., $x+r$ for secret x and random r) is perfectly secure in a finite field (this is a one-time-pad) and statistically secure for $r$ uniformly distributed in ...
49
votes
7answers
38k views

Taking advantage of one-time pad key reuse?

Suppose Alice wants to send encryptions (under a one-time pad) of $m_1$ and $m_2$ to Bob over a public channel. Alice and Bob have a shared key $k$; however, both messages are the same length as the ...
-2
votes
1answer
62 views

Randomness of a Key in a One Time Pad

The keys used in an One Time Pad are required to be randomly generated from a keyspace $\mathcal{K}$, we require 256 bit random keys, i.e. $\mathcal{K}=\{0,1\}^{256}.$ Suppose we randomly select an ...
-3
votes
2answers
60 views

Is the one-time pad secure?

I have read about one-time pads (OTP) on Wikipedia. Is this secure? Can I actually use modular addition as ecryption like it said in Wikipedia? And the plaintext is as long as the OTP, so when I send ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

CPA on theoretical OTP with CBC mode

Body of question Note: this is THEORETICAL exercise. I understand OTP and CBC does not get along. I have to find a CPA on CBC enc-mode using OTP as the encryption algorithm, s.t a new key is ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

Crack multiple One-Time-Pads with same key [duplicate]

I've got 12 pads, all with a length of 50 characters, except the last one. I also know, that the key has got a length of 50 and that the key has been re-used on all of the 12 pads. What do I have to ...
1
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1answer
65 views

Does sending the same message with 2 different keys in OTP leak information?

Suppose a common message ($M$) is XOR'ed with two different keys $K_1,K_2$ producing two ciphertexts $C_1,C_2$. Thus, $$M \oplus K_1 = C_1\\ M \oplus K_2 = C_2$$ On observing $C_1$ and $C_2$, an ...
3
votes
2answers
95 views

Extend OTP on random data?

If Alice and Bob both start with a shared OTP $P_0$, which is 256-bytes long, and Alice wants to send a 512-byte message, would it be secure to send the first 256 bytes with standard OTP (...
1
vote
2answers
88 views

Does a stream cipher provide perfect secrecy?

From WAR10CK here: If I actually do create a machine using RC4 or AES-CTR and have a TRNG continually feed it a constant steady stream of random bits. Provided that the stream of bits is purged ...
0
votes
1answer
86 views

One-time pad using RSA and Diffie-Hellman functions

Suppose that Alice and Bob use an encryption algorithm based on a one-way function $F$ (Eve knows it), and $r$, a secret key shared between Alice and Bob (Eve doesn't know it). Key is computed as: $K =...
2
votes
2answers
64 views

Is “reused one time pad” safe to encrypt a message like “random number + mod”?

I want to encrypt a message that contains a fixed length random number and a long mod. i.e. 1234564284 (created like this 123456 + (123456 mod 9931)) I assume that reusing the same key is not a ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Breaking One Time Pad with CCA

I was taught that: although OTP is CPA secure, it is not the case with CCA. I'm trying to figure how to break OTP with CCA by showing how it fails the IND test. ...
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votes
3answers
152 views

OTP - Reuse key BUT add IV, is it secure enough?

I have already asked a similar question and now I can continue to this question about adding a "extra key" = IV. My last question was about reusing key in OTP (One-Time-Pad). Now this question is ...
21
votes
7answers
6k views

Why is OTP not vulnerable to brute-force attacks?

I saw this question on the book Understanding Cryptography. At first glance it seems as though an exhaustive key search is possible against an OTP system. Given is a short message, let’s say 5 ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Many time pad attack (XOR) [duplicate]

The question is quite similar to Many time pad attack and I was trying to rely on the top answer, but still am a bit confused, so any explanation and help will be much appreciated. Assume I have a ...
1
vote
5answers
924 views

Would this simple encrypted chat program be feasible using One Time Pads?

Lets say I want to build a simple chat program that has encryption that is impossible to crack for anyone, even a theoretical government with a massive super computer. Ok here's my idea. You'll need ...
4
votes
2answers
122 views

Using One Time Pad with a block cypher

The One Time Pad is often described with a xor cipher. This is nice to show the theoretical strengths of the one time pad but not so great in real world scenarios where key reuse is a danger. So Is ...
-2
votes
1answer
85 views

How to XOR two hex values and am I doing crib dragging correctly? (OTP)

Let's say I have the two cipher texts 7ECC555AB95BF6EC605E5F22B772D2B34FF4636340D32FABC29B 73CB4855BE44F6EC60594C2BB47997B60EEE303049CD3CABC29B According to this website http://xor.pw/? the result ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Is there any difference between a one-time pad and a Vigenère cipher with a long key? [duplicate]

I've been browsing Wikipedia and stumbled on the article for the Vigenère cipher. I realized after seeing the example that it's quite similar to the one time pad, except with a short key repeated as ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

Solving for a One-time pad cipher help ; crib dragging doesnt work (no surprise) [duplicate]

Basically we're given the text 7ECC555AB95BF6EC605E5F22B772D2B34FF4636340D32FABC29B 73CB4855BE44F6EC60594C2BB47997B60EEE303049CD3CABC29B 64C6401BAF45F6A930435F3DF875C4E102F8742A45C824AFCA9B ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

How is the One Time Pad (OTP) perfectly secure?

The Wikipedia entry on One Time Pads (OTPs) states that if this cipher is used properly; ie, the keys are truly random and each "part" of the key is independent of every other "part", it's uncrackable,...
-1
votes
1answer
40 views

Can shuffling plaintext produce a useable key?

If I 'shuffle' the characters in a long text, is there some number of shuffles that will produce apparent randomness approaching a cryptographically secure random number generator? A chapter in a ...
14
votes
6answers
8k views

Simply put, what does “perfect secrecy” mean?

I would like to ask for a clear (but maybe not so deep) explanation of what the term "perfect secrecy" means. As far as I have researched and understood, it has to do with probabilities of assuming ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

One time pad (OTP) perfect secrecy with different key space

Let say $K_{0} = \left \{ 0,1\right \}^n$ $K_{1} = K=\left \{ 0,1\right \}^n$ \ $0^n$ $[b\leftarrow \left \{0,1 \right\}, k \leftarrow K_{b}:b=1|k \neq 0^n]$ --- (1) Key is chosen using ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

Decrypting messages crypted with one time pad (used more than once)

I have a stream cipher with a key (that is unknown to me) that is used more than once. Messages are ciphered in this way: ciphered_message = message XOR key Let'...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Are there any historic examples of breaking the one-time pad because of a careless key re-use? i.e simple attack on a multiple-time pad?

It doesn't have be using a truly random key, (it could be the Enigma) but the attack must be based on XORing two parts of ciphertext.
1
vote
1answer
153 views

How vulnerable is the one-time-pad (OTP) encryption, if the OTP is used twice, with a random substitution scheme

So I was wondering, I read up about OTP encrption and can see how using an OTP encryption is in itself unbreakable. However, I looked at how OTP is broken if the OTP-key is used on more than one ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

HRNG for One Time Pad

I have just advanced to the last grade of high school (in Denmark). In this year, we all get to do one big project, where we can build/invent/create whatever we want to "solve a problem". As I study ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Can OTP be made practical by using stretched hash algorithms? [duplicate]

One of the main reasons for not using OTP in everydays life is that it is highly impractical - for encrypting 4GB of files we need a 4GB key that needs to be exchanged secure. I've had an idea on how ...
39
votes
3answers
35k views

How does one attack a two-time pad (i.e. one time pad with key reuse)?

My question might appear the same as the question Taking advantage of one-time pad key reuse?, but actually I did read all the answers and none of them helped me with the details I need. I am new to ...
15
votes
3answers
1k views

Can I use a one time pad key twice with random plaintext?

I understand the basics of OTP: $|\text{key space}| = |\text{plaintext space}|$ implies perfect security, key reuse destroys this. Cryptanalysis on the $N$-Time Pad for $N > 1$ involves finding ...
3
votes
1answer
384 views

Is XOR adequate for encrypting truly random data? [duplicate]

It is well-known that the two-time pad is very insecure. However, it seems unexploitable in the case where the plaintext is indistinguishable from random (ex. symmetric keys). Is this property ...
1
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1answer
45 views

XOR or add in one time pads? [duplicate]

Is there any difference in adding the plain text and key vs using xor instead(apart from the performance improvements)?
0
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3answers
63 views

Defining Symmetric vs Asymmetric cryptosystems

I'm writing a project on the advantages and disadvantages of symmetric vs asymmetric cryptosystems. At the moment I am trying to define both systems using mathematical notation. Under the heading "...
3
votes
2answers
388 views

Re-using parts of a one time pad to encrypt a new one?

The main problem with OTP's is the fact that they can only be used once. Would it be possible to use a random number that's, say, 512 digits, then use 256 of those for the (non-random) message, the ...