A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the plain text.

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47 views

Is multiplicative blinding less secure than additive?

It's easy to see that additive blinding (e.g., $x+r$ for secret x and random r) is perfectly secure in a finite field (this is a one-time-pad) and statistically secure for $r$ uniformly distributed in ...
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3answers
1k views

HRNG for One Time Pad

I have just advanced to the last grade of high school (in Denmark). In this year, we all get to do one big project, where we can build/invent/create whatever we want to "solve a problem". As I study ...
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1answer
36 views

Can OTP be made practical by using stretched hash algorithms? [duplicate]

One of the main reasons for not using OTP in everydays life is that it is highly impractical - for encrypting 4GB of files we need a 4GB key that needs to be exchanged secure. I've had an idea on how ...
33
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3answers
31k views

How does one attack a two-time pad (i.e. one time pad with key reuse)?

My question might appear the same as the question Taking advantage of one-time pad key reuse?, but actually I did read all the answers and none of them helped me with the details I need. I am new to ...
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3answers
1k views

Can I use a one time pad key twice with random plaintext?

I understand the basics of OTP: $|\text{key space}| = |\text{plaintext space}|$ implies perfect security, key reuse destroys this. Cryptanalysis on the $N$-Time Pad for $N > 1$ involves finding ...
3
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1answer
365 views

Is XOR adequate for encrypting truly random data? [duplicate]

It is well-known that the two-time pad is very insecure. However, it seems unexploitable in the case where the plaintext is indistinguishable from random (ex. symmetric keys). Is this property ...
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0answers
31 views

emulation of a one-time-pad based on multiple keys of running cipher

a one-time-pad cipher is one that uses a long "truly" random key that is as long as the plain text message. the key must be only used once. the key must not be derived from pseudo random number ...
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6answers
6k views

Simply put, what does “perfect secrecy” mean?

I would like to ask for a clear (but maybe not so deep) explanation of what the term "perfect secrecy" means. As far as I have researched and understood, it has to do with probabilities of assuming ...
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1answer
40 views

XOR or add in one time pads? [duplicate]

Is there any difference in adding the plain text and key vs using xor instead(apart from the performance improvements)?
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3answers
56 views

Defining Symmetric vs Asymmetric cryptosystems

I'm writing a project on the advantages and disadvantages of symmetric vs asymmetric cryptosystems. At the moment I am trying to define both systems using mathematical notation. Under the heading ...
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2answers
367 views

Re-using parts of a one time pad to encrypt a new one?

The main problem with OTP's is the fact that they can only be used once. Would it be possible to use a random number that's, say, 512 digits, then use 256 of those for the (non-random) message, the ...
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1answer
60 views

infinite one-time-pad based on reference compression. can this be made more practical?

first of all I would like to start with this does not modify one-time-pad at all. nor does it apply any excessive limitations to the people using this said algorithm. a one-time pad can't be ...
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1answer
148 views

Do any (non-hardware) RNGs exist which could be used to create an OTP for crypto purposes?

I've stumbled (jobwise) over a system where small messages (512 Bytes or less) are encrypted and decrypted using a simple XOR using a OTP. That OTP is created using a seed based on the individual user ...
1
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1answer
109 views

Combining a block cipher with a (pseudo) OTP

One of the drawbacks of OTP is that it can require an inconveniently long key. Besides that, it doesn’t provide data authentication. Therefore, I have been working on an algorithm idea, which I hope ...
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1answer
116 views

Mathematical formula for switching the key for OTP?

Instead of generating the random key for the one time pad cipher over and over again, is there a mathematical formula that allows you to switch the key to a new key? The new key must be as random and ...
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3answers
839 views

How is the One Time Pad (OTP) perfectly secure?

The Wikipedia entry on One Time Pads (OTPs) states that if this cipher is used properly; ie, the keys are truly random and each "part" of the key is independent of every other "part", it's ...
0
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1answer
80 views

Unconditionally Secure Authentication

I'm trying to add the authentication for my One-Time Pad implementation. I know that to provide Unconditionally Secure Authentication I need to use the One-Time MAC authentication. But I don't ...
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0answers
25 views

How do we measure number of possible encryptions in One Time Pad [duplicate]

trying to brute force a specific length of ciphered pad, how do we measure the total number of possible encryptions in One Time Pad
3
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1answer
83 views

A “one time pad” can be thought of a Vigenere cipher with

A "One Time Pad" can be thought of a Vigenere cipher with... An infinitely long key A secure symmetric key Multiple ciphertext alphabets A columnar transposition I had this question come up ...
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1answer
62 views

Why is the XOR of plaintexts equal to the XOR of ciphertexts with a two time pad?

I have been working in the vulnerabilities of the Two Time Pad. So i found in a lot of places, StackExchange included saying, that if two plain texts are encrypted (using XOR) with the same key the ...
2
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3answers
171 views

One Time Pads and reuse of the decrypted message?

How is it insecure when Alice encrypts a message with a One-Time-Pad to Bob, and Bob then uses the decrypted message from Alice as the next One-Time-Pad? For example: Alice sends Bob a message ...
2
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2answers
269 views

Reusing message in One Time Pad

One of the main rules of the OTP is, that a key should never ever be reused. But if we use some commutative operation (XOR for example) for generating the cipher text, then I don't see any difference ...
2
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3answers
80 views

Find plaintext from two ciphers encrypted with a one-time pad and the same key

I'm studying for a cryptography test and I came across this question: Assume a language has three letters: A=1111, B=0011 and C=1010. Two words in this language are encrypted with a one-time pad ...
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7answers
33k views

Taking advantage of one-time pad key reuse?

Suppose Alice wants to send encryptions (under a one-time pad) of $m_1$ and $m_2$ to Bob over a public channel. Alice and Bob have a shared key $k$; however, both messages are the same length as the ...
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1answer
43 views

Is this distributed OTP scheme secure?

This is for a distributed system: we don't want to have to maintain synchronization of random streams neither enforce uniqueness of pads because this would require some synchronization. Alice and Bob ...
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1answer
59 views

Is it possible to add error propagation to OTP?

What would be the recipe to add error propagation to a one time pad? I.e. if I change a single letter in the clear text message, I want the encrypted message to change starting from that letter and up ...
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2answers
89 views

Extend OTP on random data?

If Alice and Bob both start with a shared OTP $P_0$, which is 256-bytes long, and Alice wants to send a 512-byte message, would it be secure to send the first 256 bytes with standard OTP (...
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2answers
58 views

One time pad- XORing or substitution

I have come across 2 versions of otp while reading it and want to confirm it. they have taken a plain text consisting of alphabets where they are shifted and replaced by alphabets itself. XORing of ...
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4answers
1k views

“Padless” One-time-Pad encryption

I have just read about the perfect security of an OTP encryption and what came to my mind was that what if the Pad used for encryption/decryption did not have to be transported separately from the ...
5
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4answers
898 views

With a true random number generator at hand, how to implement one-time pad?

I have a Raspberry Pi single-board computer that happened to have an hardware true random number generator, based on some quantum effects on the processor silicon, baked into its BCM2835 chip and I ...
3
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2answers
80 views

Is there a practical security difference between OTP with letters and OTP with numbers?

Is there a practical security difference between “OTP with letters” and “OTP with numbers”? If, for example, I encrypt a letter message using Tabula Recta with a random letter key, I would get: ...
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2answers
107 views

use the same pad reversed

Suppose I have a random number (eg 625 467 921). I use it once to encrypt a message OTP style, and when I want to use them again, I reverse them (eg to ...
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1answer
66 views

Explain same encryption time for two files of different sizes

I am encrypting files in a two layered fashion as follows: Inner layer is 128 bit AES-CTR encryption Outer/Second layer is a simple one time padding with a particular key. While testing the ...
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4answers
533 views

Is there a way to generate sound one-time pads out of public information?

Is there a way to 'mangle' a public data-source (for example, the current date in YYYYMMDD or the top New York Times headline) to form a one-time pad that will sufficiently hide the pad's source? ...
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2answers
51 views

OTP same message encrypted twice (with different keys)

Lets say we have a message $m$ that we encrypt with two keys $k_1, k_2$ such that $k_1 \ne k_2$. This will produce two ciphertexts $c_1, c_2$ such that $c_1 = m \oplus k_1, c_2 = m \oplus k_2$. The ...
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3answers
208 views

zendo data size restrictions

zendo is a new mobile phone app which encrypts messages using a one-time pad: http://techcrunch.com/2015/03/24/one-time-pads-ride-again/ users have to meet in person and exchange a key via a qr ...
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85 views

Perfect secrecy with n-time key

How can you encrypt $n$ messages with the same key, and have the same theoretical security you'd have encrypting a single message with a one time pad? For example, how can you encrypt two messages ...
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2answers
57 views

Can one construct OTPs without using XOR?

The typical version of the one-time-pad (OTP) uses XOR to combine a key pad and a message. ($c=m\oplus k$) Now let's assume some other scenarios which have the practical application of blinding. Do ...
3
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1answer
87 views

How can recovered 5-letters plain text help me to recover reused OTP key

I have 10 cipher texts ciphered with One Time Pad (OTP) using the same key. I need to recover the key (or in other words, to recover the 11th cipher text which I assumed would require me to recover ...
2
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1answer
75 views

One time pad ciphers in emails

In order to achieve very high security for privacy, would it be cryptographically secure to use one time pad ciphers in emails? The distribution of the keyword would pose no problems since I would ...
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2answers
101 views

Present an attack for the combination of OTP and textbook RSA

Let $N=p \times q$ where $p$ and $q$ are two primes. Compute $\Phi (N) = (p-1)(q-1)$. Choose $e$ s.t. $1 < e < \Phi(N)$ and $gcd(e,\Phi(N))=1$. Compute $d = e^{-1}(mod \ \Phi(N))$. ...
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0answers
18 views

Cryptanalysis on two time pad ciphers? [duplicate]

One time pad ciphers are unbreakable if the message is encrypted correctly and if only used once. However if used more than once, it becomes decipherable. How come? Also, would it be smart to use one ...
3
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1answer
137 views

Hash functions to generate one time pad

Newbie question... may be... Stream cypher, will XOR message bits with one time pad bits Suppose I have a pseudo random number generator, like a Mersenne twister or sort of. I could use the ...
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1answer
107 views

Is one-time-pad still secure if the number of 1's in the key is revealed to the attacker?

For example, if $m = 10011$, $k = 11001$, $n=3$ (which is the number of 1's in k), $c = m \oplus k = 01010$. If $c$ and $n$ are revealed to the attacker, is this scheme still secure?
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4answers
2k views

Is the one-time-pad a secure system according to modern definitions?

Occasionally I hear people say that one-time pads are "useless" or even "broken". "modern cryptography knows more security definitions, under some of which the one-time pad is completely ...
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1answer
104 views

OTP - Reuse key BUT add IV, is it secure enough?

EDIT: REUSING KEY IS SECURE! OTP - Reusing key IS SECURE! PROVED! I have already asked a similar question and now I can continue to this question about adding a "extra key" = IV. My last question ...
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1answer
98 views

Will adding space to the Vigenère block make it truly unbreakable?

I just have gotten into cryptography and learned about the Vigenère block. I think it's a very good idea because, if used correctly, it is unbreakable. But the only downsite is, the key must be the ...
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2answers
165 views

Why are there no OTP ciphers?

We all know the OTP is unbreakable and we all love the OTP (judging by the amount of question on this site). The strength of the OTP is not that it is unable to find a word without the key but you ...
2
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1answer
660 views

Isn't a simple Vernam cipher as secure as known symmetric key algorithms?

I have just read little about the Vernam cipher and the problems of implementing it. But, in practice, would not the key, if generated by a commonly used programming language's ...
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2answers
95 views

If you have a file and XOR every bit with a random bit, can you extract any information?

Say you have a file that is not random, and you XOR every bit with a random bit (not pseudo, but really random). Can someone who sees only the result extract any information from it? Obviously, it ...