A pseudo-random function is an efficiently-computable function which emulates a random oracle.

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Turning PRPs in PRGs with a counter

I am following the Coursera Cryptography I course and I have the following question, I am a bit perplexed by the statement, in week 2 lecture "What are block cyphers?" that a counter-mode PRF is a ...
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63 views

Is a keyed PRF a MAC?

I remember I read that a MAC can be considered as a PRF. Can a variable-length input keyed-PRF be considered as a MAC?
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80 views

Cryptographic pseudo-random generation of address subsets

Suppose I have devices which broadcast, on an insecure channel, 32-bit addresses. I want to make these devices untraceable - one way to do so is to allocate for each device a distinct subset of ...
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50 views

Special random distribution algorithm

I am implementing ring signatures as a part of an authorization system. Since the number of users could get high enough to make computation on end-user devices infeasible, I am thinking of ...
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77 views

PRF and hash functions

Is there a difference between PRF and a hash function? example: Creation of a secret key is using PRF and creating a secret key is using hash function.
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93 views

How to implement a Cryptographic Pseudo Random Function

I need three pseudo random functions which all take a seed S (t-bits long). The functions should map from $d$ bits to $d$ bits $d$ bits to $1$ bit $d$ bits to $t$ bits $d$ is $10$ bits $t$ is ...
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Security of KDF1 and KDF2 (hash based KDF's)

It's still common to come across implementations of KDF1 and KDF2. Basically these are KDF's that simply derive multiple keys from the key seed and a counter: $K_i = KDF(K_{master}, i) = H(K_{master} ...
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71 views

Exchanging Keyspace and Message space in PRF

Suppose there is a secure PRF $F: K \times X \to Y$. Then is $F': X \times K \to Y$, defined by $F'(x,k):=F(k,x)$, a secure PRF? In my opinion it should be because exchanging the keyspace with ...
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68 views

What is the difference between PRF and a Random Oracle?

What is the difference between Pseudo Random Functions and Random Oracles? Is the difference only about the domain of PRFs and Random Oracles, former having a fixed domain and latter can act on any ...
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98 views

TLS Key Block calculation - What is a PRF?

In Section 6.3 of the RFC for TLS 1.2, it is written that the key_block is derived from the following formula: ...
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1answer
103 views

HKDF vs TLS PRF. Which of the one is better? [closed]

Which of the one (HKDF or TLS1.1+ PRF) is more secure and why?
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What might be assumed about a PRF if the key has been chosen?

The defining feature of a PRF $f:\{0,1\}^k\times\{0,1\}^s\mapsto\{0,1\}^*$ is that, if the first parameter is selected at random, it should be indistinguishable from a function ...
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136 views

Traitor-tracing PRF

I'm looking for a pseudorandom function (PRF) with "traitor-tracing" properties. More specifically, I'd like there to be multiple equivalent keys, so I can give different parties different keys, but ...
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101 views

Private set intersection, using a semi-trusted server

Alice has a set $S$ of words. Bob has a set $T$ of words. They want to compute the intersection $S \cap T$ of their words, with the help of a semi-trusted third party Trent. Trent runs a central ...
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4answers
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Is this a pseudo random function (PRF)? F(k,x) = f(k,x) - f(k,x-1)

I have a question about Pseudo Random Functions. Let $f:\{0,1\}^m \times \{0,1\}^n → \{0,1\}^n$ be a secure PRF. Define $F(k,x) = f(k,x) - f(k, x-1 \bmod 2^{n}) \bmod 2^{n}$. Is $F$ is a secure ...
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90 views

Prime factors of non-random keys

I have been working on a challenge i found on the internet. It is as follows: You've stumbled onto a significant vulnerability in a commonly used cryptographic library. It turns out that the ...
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2answers
189 views

PRP, PRF and modular arithmetic

Are there any arithmetic or mathematical functions that can be used as PRPs or PRFs ? Since, Conventional block ciphers like AES are that are proven to be good PRPs are not based on mathematics but ...
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Prove that two MACs with incremendal PRF application are not secure

How do I prove the following MACs are insecure?                                                        1                                                                                   2
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What is the impact of different modes on pseudo randomness of AES?

AES in CBC-MAC mode is proven to be good PRF . But is there any study done on other modes ? how good is ECB mode as PRF ?
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184 views

Why is this MAC based on secure PRF with ordering and randomization insecure?

Is this MAC secure: To authenticate a message $m=m_1||\ldots||m_l$ where $m_i \in \{0,1\}^{n/2}$, choose $r \leftarrow \{0,1\}^n$ at random, compute $$t:=F_k(r)\oplus F_k(\langle 1\rangle || ...
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how to truncate a PRF on n bits to PRF on t bits where t < n? [closed]

Dan Boneh's courersa lecture on format preserving encryption at 5.50 mins , talks about truncating a PRF on $n$ bits to PRF on $t$ bits. The approach is by appending $(n-t)$ zeros to input $t$ bits ...
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92 views

Security based on PRF

I've seen that there is several kinds of PRF, and sometimes people speak about strong PRFs. When proofs of a protocol or algorithm are given based on the assumption of the use of a PRF, are they ...
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1answer
187 views

Why is it important to generate a pseudorandom permutation from a pseudorandom function?

Most of the papers on block cipher constructions, especially the ones which discuss constructing block ciphers of arbitrary lengths or small domains, the techniques are designed based on building a ...
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Protocol/algorithms based on a variable-length input PRF

Are the proofs based on a PRF assumption still valid when using a variable-length input PRF ? The answer might be obvious, but I have a doubt.
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106 views

Is this EAX extension weakening the (provable) security of EAX?

I would like to insert a key deriving function into EAX mode, in order to hamper brute-force attacks for a key-size restricted cipher (56 bits). The modification inserts an identical multi-block ...
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126 views

The Goldreich-Goldwasser-Micali Construction with bad PRGS

I understand that if we have a secure PRG then the Goldreich-Goldwasser-Micali construction gives us a secure PRF. However, what I've not been able to find much material on is how will the GGM ...
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Is there any existing analysis for this construction to turn a tweakable blockcipher into a PRF?

I'm basically looking at this construction to turn a tweakable blockcipher $E_c(x)$ taking a key $k$, nonce $n$, counter $c$ (forming tweak $t = c||n$) and an input $x$ into a PRF on an ...
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Estimating bits of entropy

Best ways to estimate average bits of entropy in a byte stream. I know there are different statistical tests out there (NIST, Dieharder, etc), which all do different ways of analyzing entropy. What ...
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165 views

Salsa20 in Davies-Meyer mode with a fixed key (message): is it one-way?

Say I have a function that calculates a pseudo random permutation and this function is easy to invert. For example $P(i) = AES_k(i)$ where $k$ is a publicly known key. So anyone can compute $P(i)$ ...
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510 views

Hash function based on pseudorandom functions and security

Are there hash functions that make use of pseudorandom functions. Precisely, I'm looking for a specification of a hash function based on PRF (and based on the security of such a primitive).
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security amplification

Reading some papers on security amplification of weak-PRP written by Stefano Tessaro, I noticed the use of notion "epsilon-PRP" and the notion of "security amplification". These notions, in ...
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Why is it said that if we know few bits of pseudo random sequence we can predict the whole of it?

I am new to this cryptography and in the source from which i study it is said that if we know the first few bits of a pseudo random sequence we can predict the whole of it.How is it possible? The ...
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Pseudorandom functions

The usual case to distinguish a pseudorandom function from a random function is to assume that the adversary can choose the plaintext blocks. Is there another case (game) in which the adversary can ...
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225 views

Encryption schemes and pseudorandom permutations

Can an encryption scheme (deterministic or not) be viewed as a pseudorandom permutation taking as input a message and returning a value of the same bit-encoding length ? Thank you.
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Construct a random permutation from a random function?

How can we construct a (pseudo) random permutation from a (pseudo) random function ? I've seen a method from Luby-Rackoff which allows to construct a PRP of length $2N$ from a PRF of input/output ...
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1answer
147 views

How does the birthday attack work in AUTH and UF-CMA games?

In the AUTH and UF-CMA games, an adversary is required to forge a ciphertext or message/tag pair to win the game. Given an encryption scheme $E$ and a PRF $F$, let $\hat{E} = C || F_k(C)$ and $C = ...
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Question about the definition of a secure PRF

I'm taking a cryptography introduction course, and we're covering the definition of a secure PRF. I understand the test goes as follows: A challenger picks a function $f$ such that $f \leftarrow ...
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Could use an explanation of the notation for an oracle adversary

In the definition below, what exactly does it mean for the adversary (not even sure that's the correct term?) to equal one? $$ \underset{K}{Pr} \left [A^{F_k(\cdot)} = 1 \right ] $$ Source (Page ...
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Generate random number which should depend on key

i want to generate random number for example from [1..100]. The algorithm which would generates random number should work similarly like a "Linear congruential generator", like this: $X_{n+1}≡(aX_n ...
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GGM PRG construction: Why do we need to change keys all the time with underlying PRG

When constructing a PRF that has n bit input using the GGM PRG, why do we always have to recursively run the PRG using its previous output as a seed key n times. Instead, why don't we run the PRG n ...
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What is an oracle adversary?

I'm trying to figure out block ciphers and this is the first time I've encountered the term "oracle adversary". It appears in the context of defining a PRP and a PRF. Can someone please explain what ...
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How to construct a good PRF from a block cipher?

We want to explicitly construct a good (as tentatively defined below) Pseudo-Random Function $F$ with $b$-bit input and output, from (preferably just) one Pseudo-Random Permutation $E$ of $b$-bit, as ...
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Proof that a function constructed from a PRP is, or is not a PRF?

Let $E$ be a family of Pseudo-Random Permutations of $b$ bits, with $E_K$ indistinguishable from random permutation with effort less than $O(2^b)$, easily computable as well as the inverse ...
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151 views

Pseudo-random Number generation for Passwords

I am looking for a good pseudo-random number generation algorithm for passwords. My scenario is that I have to generate 5K pseudo-random bits from a user-supplied password (6 characters). What are ...
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IND-CPA security scheme [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: CPA Secure Chosen plaintext scheme The example for IND-CPA secure schemes given is generally: for a random r, $Enc_k(m) =(r|| E_k(r)$ $XOR$ $m)$ where $E$ is a $PRF$ ...
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What is difference between PRG, PRF, and PRP

Until what I have gotten is: A PRG is generator is a part of PRF that produces pseudo-random values for the function. PRF is semantically secure and has no worries of being invertible. Fine, then ...
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Goldreich-Goldwasser-Micali Construction

The Goldreich-Goldwasser-Micali construction allows to build a (cryptographically secure) pseudo-random function from of a (cryptographically secure) pseudo-random generator. More formally, let $G: ...
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Does a hash function in chaining mode or in counter mode make a better pseudo-random number generator?

I have two pseudorandom generators: $f_1$ takes a random seed $l_0||r_0$ $\in \{0,1\}^{160}$ as input and outputs $r_1||r_2|| \dots ||r_k$, where $l_i||r_i = \operatorname{SHA-1}(l_{i-1}||r_{i-1})$ ...
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534 views

Questions about Key Derivation Functions

My understanding is that a KDF is a function that takes a master secret and generates multiple keys. It is secure as long as the keys are "independent". If this is true, the following definition would ...
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Cryptographically strong pseudo-random seq. generators

If a pseudo-random sequence generator is built so that it uses an n-bit seed and outputs a string that is of length x. Let's say one wants to generate a bit string of length y and uses the previous ...