An asymmetric cipher is an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communication.

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Crypto puzzle as proof of randomness?

I need an untrusted client to generate a random public/private keypair (in particular, an Ed25519 keypair, which can be generated really fast), but I'm only allowed to see the public key. The ...
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Prevent/minimize replay attacks in public message board

Assume we have a public message board where anyone can send a message to. If plain messages are used, anyone can impersonate anyone. The goal is to disallow impersonations. We can use public key ...
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Is this a correctly formatted PGP session key packet?

RFC 4880 may be full of information, but it can be incredibly vague at times, so im looking for someone who actually knows the answer to this. Given this public key: ...
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What happens if an RSA key pair has identical public and private exponents?

Rather, is it possible for big prime numbers? Classroom examples usually involve smaller primes, so for example if you are given a prime number pair $p = 3$, $q = 13$ you would get $n = 39$ and $e = ...
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Why can't I break ElGamal encryption by brute-forcing the secret exponent?

I am doing a course on cryptography on coursera and one of the topics covered was the ElGamal Encryption system. I am using the terms as defined in Wikipedia. Alice publishes $g$ and $g^x$. ...
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Why is RSA usually limited to messages up to 1 block

I'm wondering why RSA encryption usually is only used for messages that fit into one block. For larger messages hybrid encryption in combination with symmetric ciphers like AES seem to be the solution ...
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Is there an authenticated encryption scheme where the recipient can attribute the message to a single sender?

With a standard authenticated encryption scheme (or MAC), Alice and Bob share a symmetric key. When Alice sends something to Bob, Bob can check that it is authentic. At that point, Bob can deduce ...
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Do known-plaintext attacks exist for public key encryption?

In asymmetric ciphers we publish the public key for anyone, which means an attacker can encrypt any message they want and compare the ciphertext and plaintext without communicating with the owner of ...
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152 views

What's the strategy for future directions in cryptography? Bigger numbers/faster searching, or new methods, say, of factoring?

I'm taking a course in cryptography, and I would value any comments. This is not too technical a question, but more about directions or strategy in cryptography. My question is, is public key ...
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660 views

Determining the algorithm used to generate a digital signature

I have a string "abcd pqrs". This string is digitally signed with an X.509 certificate (with its private key) and it produces a signature. From the signed string, is it possible to find out what ...
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Difference between symmetric and asymmetric hash function?

The Linux kernel supports symmetric and asymmetric hash functions. E.g. sha1, sha256, ... See tcrypt.c and search for test_hash_speed and ...
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3answers
154 views

Public keys and their protocols

I'm having difficulties understanding exactly what this protocol means: $S \to D : \{N_S , S\}K_D$ $D \to S : \{N_S , N_D \}K_S$ $S \to D : \{N_D \}K_D$ "where $S$ represents the supervisor’s ...
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189 views

What would the Internet be like without public-key cryptography?

The functioning of the Internet as we know it nowadays depends very heavily on public-key cryptography, including several key root systems that depend on its asymmetric properties. But what would it ...
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2k views

Why the following attack in common modulus RSA works?

Suppose that i share a common modulus $N$ with two users $u_1$ and $u_2$ with public, secret keys ($e_a,d_a$), ($e_b,d_b$). Why then $gcd(V,e_b)=1$ where $V=d_a*e_a-1/$W and $W=gcd(e_b,d_a*e_a-1)$ ...
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How to generate a public key from a private ECDSA key?

Having some specific ECDSA curve and a private key, how does one calculate the public key? I am having a hard time finding the algorithm and equations for it.
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What are the benefits of lattice based cryptography?

Previously we visited the benefits of elliptic curves for cryptography. Lattice based cryptography is starting to become quite popular in academia. The primary benefit of lattice based crypto is the ...
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591 views

using Post-quantum asymmetric ciphers instead of RSA

We can't trust RSA to encrypt our Emails so what is best post-quantum cryptography system as alternative for RSA which provide good security and don't be breakable? because McEliece cryptosystem looks ...
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837 views

Public key cryptography - public key encrypts and cannot decrypt?

I understand the basics behind public key cryptography, in that each party has two keys - the public one encrypts, and the private one decrypts. What I cannot figure out is, How does the public key ...
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348 views

RSA Key generation Public exponent too big

I'm currently writing a paper about RSA (a self-chosen subject). I'm writing about the key-generation in RSA, and I have problem finding the public exponent e. I have chosen p = 61 and q = 53. Then ...
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454 views

Does RSA-OEAP have integrity and authenticity properties?

RSA-OAEP is IND-CCA2 secure (indistinguishable under an adaptive chosen ciphertext attack). Does it also have the INT-CTXT (integrity of ciphertext) and INT-PTXT (integrity of plaintext) properties? ...
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2k views

Get RSA PlainText without Knowing Private Key

If I have an algorithm,RSA-Crack(), that, for a given RSA public key (n,e), is able to decrypt 1% of the messages encrypted with that key (without knowledge of the corresponding private key).Can there ...
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In RSA encryption, does the value of e need to be random?

I am a novice programmer and am just finishing up an RSA encryption program that I am writing for practice. Currently I have the program generate a relatively small random value for the public key e. ...
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557 views

Safety of DSA key parameters sharing

I'm looking for a solution to use in a context where I need to be able to generate new asymmetric key pairs quickly (using a widely recognized algorithm, and EC-DSA is not applicable). It sounds like ...
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How should one implement a delegated shared trust protocol?

Consider the following (probably naive) scenario. Alice, who is very limited in her knowledge of security in general (clueless about securing a private key for example), wishes to delegate certain ...
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Ring Signature - paper/code difference in trying to solve inverse trap door function?

there is a paper on ring signatures and a python implementation of it here. The Step 4 in the paper describes $y_s = v =C_k,_v(y_1, y_2, ... y_r)$ for all $1 \leq i \leq r$ where $i \neq s$. The ...
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Breaking RSA, given a special kind of oracle that decrypts related ciphertexts for us

Let $c=E^{RSA}_{e}(w)$ be the ciphertext belonging to the plaintext $w$ if an $RSA$ system is used. Assume that the public exponent $e$ satisfies $e \le 10$. Furthermore, assume there is an oracle ...
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What is a trapdoor permutation?

Can anyone explain to me what a trapdoor one-way permutation is? Is RSA a trapdoor one-way permutation? Context: I was reading about ring signatures. On page 560, it describes steps to ...
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implications of SSH server key compromission when authenticating users against a public key

Friday we had a disagreement with a colleague of mine about the implications of SSH server key compromission The question was stated as this : What could a hacker do while provided with the SSH ...
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How can I prove in zero knowldege that an ElGamal shuffle is correct for a special setting? [closed]

In a special ElGamal encryption scheme, every user has an ElGamal encryption key-pair using the same cyclic group $G$ and generator $g$. The system has a special function : $$ \mathrm{ShuffleEncrypt}...
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Can two different pairs of RSA key have the same modulus?

Can $n=pq$ be part of two different pairs of RSA keys? If such keys exist, say $(e_1,n)$ and $(e_2,n)$, how are they related? What will be the security concerns for the two users?
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When is each key used when encrypting an email using OpenPGP?

When you send an email using PGP to encrypt emails, is the recipients public key used to encrypt the email, or is your private key used? Are they both used? At what points do each of the four keys ...
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How do I encrypt with the private key? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: RSA encryption with private key and decryption with a public key This wording is creeping everywhere (e.g. there): "I encrypt with the private key" and even sometimes, "I ...
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Can I save space for short messages by using encryption with private key instead of a signature?

Let's say I have a message, a Private Key and a Public Key. Normally if you want to see if the message is unaltered and is from the sender you would have the message part + signature part, which you ...
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Correct method to encrypt data so that it can be decrypted only by Alice and Bob

I need to build a system that stores encrypted transactions. Transaction involves always two parties. Payer and payee. Both must be able to download encrypted transaction from server and decrypt it ...
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576 views

What is the strength of unpadded RSA?

I would like to use unpadded RSA for homomorphic encryption in a toy P2P game, for things like fair coin flips and shuffling. How many bits of security does unpadded RSA have, in relation to its key ...
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668 views

How to avoid a chicken and egg scenario with encrypting passwords?

I am working on application that allows users to upload files containing company data and then share those files with a list of other users that have specific roles within the system. I want to ...
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634 views

What is the harm if I publish an encrypted RSA private key publicly?

What is the harm if I publish an encrypted RSA private key publicly? Or in this case, what is the harm if I publish many thousands or millions of them? Assuming that the private key is encrypted ...
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How to jusify {e,n} is a valid RSA public key?

I have a two set of key {36,77} and {50,117}, How can validate if it is a valid RSA public keys? Is there any simple method?
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Is truncating a hashed private key with SHA-1 safe to use as the symmetric key for AES for data at rest?

I realize this is mixing the purposes between asymmetric and symmetric crypto, but I was wondering if it is safe to use a hashed, truncated private key (asymmetric) as the symmetric key for encrypting ...
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607 views

Encryption with private key?

we normally always encrypt by public key and decrypt with private key. If i encrypt with private key, then its still secure as normal PKI ? i mean known-plain-text will not take private key on the ...
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Is this design of client side encryption secure?

I want to build a secure file storage web application. Users should be sure that server doesn't know how to decrypt files so encryption should take place at client side (i.e. in Javascript) and TLS ...
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Does a high exponent compensate for a low degree of certainty?

If a RSA certificate is created with a low degree of certainty, does the value of the exponent compensate for this? I'm asking because certain implementations of key generation software hide the ...
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How to decrypt this RSA-like cipher

Suppose we have a RSA-type Modulus $n = pq$ with $p,q$ prime. We also pick a random public exponent $e$ with $\gcd(e,\varphi(n)) = 1$ and compute the private exponent $d$ with $de \equiv 1 \pmod{\...
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What is the correct value for “certainty” in RSA key pair generation?

I'm creating an RSA key pair in Bouncy Castle and need to specify an int value for certainty. This Stack Overflow answer says it is a relative test for how prime the values are. There is another ...
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Algorithm to securely exchange identities

Say four people each have a public/private key pair that they can use to encrypt or sign messages. They have an anonymous way to post messages such that the others can see them. Malicious entities can ...
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695 views

How exactly are GPG keys mathematically related, and prime numbers inside of GPG general

Before anyone suggest it, I've yet to pick up "Applied Cryptography" I'm planning on picking it up the next time I visit amazon. I know that the keys are somehow mathematically related, and I know ...
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How can the Schmidt–Samoa cryptosystem uniquely decrypt large messages?

Suppose I choose $p=7$ and $q=11$. This gives a public key of $p^2·q = 539$. However, decryption occurs using a modulus of $p·q=77$. If a person chooses to encrypt $500$ using my public key, how ...
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DGK Cryptosystem Key Generation and Decryption Issues

I detailed here the DGK (Ivan Damgård, Martin Geisler and Mikkel Krøigaard) cryptosystem, and I managed to get it to work, most of the time... The BIG problem that I am facing at the moment is that ...
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How can I protect against the failure of a block or symmetric cipher?

Can I protect against the failure of a block or symmetric cipher by chaining different techniques together? If so what implementation details should I be aware of? Are some combination of ciphers ...
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When to prefer exchanging cryptographic certificates over exchanging only public keys?

Let's think of the following case: A group of peers want to exchange messages with each other. They use public-key cryptography to sign and encrypt messages. Anyone with any name can join the ...