An asymmetric cipher is an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communication.

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Alice answering Bob without knowing he question

I'm a student and I don't know how to solve the following problem : Alice is proposing a 10 questions list to Bob. Bob choose only 1 question and wants to know the answer without Alice knowing the ...
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Lightweight Asymmetric encryption algorithm

I'm an embedded systems researcher, and new in the crypto field. Actually, I need to know if there are any lightweight asymmetric encryption algorithm especially considering the time needed for key ...
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Generating keys in RSA [duplicate]

I'm trying to learn how RSA works. From what I found online, I'm supposed to generate private key using Extended Euclidean algorithm. I've managed to generate the public key, but don't know how to ...
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1answer
99 views

How to determine if padding has been used while encrypting a message with RSA?

I am trying to decrypt a RSA encrypted text file. I have a 2048 bit public key. Analyzing the public key with openssl reveals the exponent used is 3. ...
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2answers
297 views

Why is hybrid encryption more effective than other encryption scheme?

Currently I am learning about Hybrid Encryption but I was not able to find any good study material. Below is my understanding: One of the reason why we use ...
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4answers
281 views

Message exchange with textbook RSA

I am working on this exercise but can't work out the answer to the question b. I have solved the question (a) by decrypting the ciphertext $C = 2$ using the formula: $$ M = C^d \bmod n = 2^{17} \bmod ...
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1answer
193 views

Help with RSA-2048 crypto ransom virus [closed]

The RSA-2048 Crypto Ransom Virus has devastated me, I tried the backup method, the previous version, the Shadow Explorer, it deleted all my restore points, Its took out 5 HDs and my USB pen that ...
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0answers
31 views

Is it possible to re-generate ECPublic key from raw private key and curve params?

As per my understanding, in Elliptical curve cryptography, the EC PrivateKey is nothing but a bigInteger value. If you know the curve specs and you have this private BigInteger value (which I am ...
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0answers
59 views

MITM Attack on Key Exchange Protocols

I was doing research on this attack and I am wondering, why is Diffie-Hellman always associated with such an attack? ​ Aren't other public key cryptography schemes vulnerable to the same kind of ...
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1answer
65 views

Usefulness of Damgård–Jurik

I am trying to understand what are the benefits of using Damgård–Jurik over Paillier. I understand that expansion factor decreases as s increases. But isn't it the ...
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2answers
119 views

Random Coin Flip

Quoting an old question: Consider the following protocol for two parties A and B to flip a fair coin (more complicated versions of this might be used for Internet gambling): A trusted ...
2
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0answers
32 views

How do I prove that a bit by bit PKE scheme (that is IND-CPA secure) for an n-bit message is not IND-CCA-2 secure?

Gen generates Pk and Sk (l bits each), Enc encrypts m (length l) but by bit using each bit of Pk respectively, Dec decrypts ciphertext bit by bit using each bit of Sk respectively. How do I prove this ...
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82 views

What type of encryption scheme can prevent cheating in this coin flip protocol? [duplicate]

Consider the following protocol for two parties to flip a fair coin: Trusted party $T$ publishes her public key $p_k$ A chooses a random bit $b_A$, encrypts it under $p_k$, and announces the ...
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1answer
48 views

RSA Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding Beginner

I'm new to the OAEP scheme. I learn it from the Wikipedia page. Link The page does not explain a proper setup for of the system. So I'm not sure if the output of the padding scheme which contains ...
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0answers
20 views

Does OEAP padding limit the size of my modulous to the size fo the hash function?

im looking at wiki at the moment as how to use oeap padding and it appears, help me out if im wrong as G(r) - expands r to the size of the padded message, I am then limited by the size of my hash ...
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1answer
32 views

Perfect Forward Secrecy in PGP/asynchronous email

Looking at the RFC for PGP email/asynchronous chat with PFS here https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-brown-pgp-pfs-03 can anyone tell me why the following scheme is no good? Alice and Bob retrieve each ...
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1answer
94 views

Cryptography of numbers

Is there any algorithm capable of encrypt securely (symmetric) N numeric digits in a numeric message of M digits (N < M)? I am especially interested in a specific case in which N = 10 and M = N + ...
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0answers
32 views

What is the security parameter in “KAC” key generation? [duplicate]

I am trying to implement key generation from the paper Key-Aggregate Cryptosystem for Scalable Data Sharing in Cloud Storage. In the paper, the first step in key generation is a setup phase state as ...
4
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1answer
116 views

Are there comprehensive alternatives to RSA?

If we wished to, is there a comprehensive alternative to RSA? I say comprehensive as I wonder if there is one which does both encryption and digital signature like RSA? If not, simply what ...
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1answer
96 views

RSA: must $d$ be an integer?

I am only taking baby steps in RSA. If $p=11$, $q=7$ and $e=3$, $$\phi(n) = 10*6 = 60$$ Then: $$d = (2 (\phi(n)) + 1 ) / 3 = 121/3$$ Should $d$ be kept as a non-integer or is such a $d$ invalid? ...
4
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2answers
131 views

Public key crypto instead of hashing passwords in a database

Suppose I want to keep a client's password database secure (not in plaintext), while still having access to the plaintext password. Now I generates a public/private keypair. Then I send the public ...
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2answers
2k views

Why is PuTTYgen-created RSA public exponent(e) not in {3,17,65537}?

As far as I know, RSA public exponent(e) should be one of {3,17,65537}. However, I found PuTTYgen-created RSA public exponent(e) is 0x25(37) by default,as follows, (PuTTYgen version: 0.66) I am ...
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1answer
143 views

Confused about how chosen ciphertext attacks work?

When performing a CCA, the adversary gets the public key. At some point, he will send a message m to the challenger, and the challenger will send back either $E_{pk}(m)$ or $E_{pk}(r)$, where r is ...
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38 views

David Chaum's anonymous credential

I am a newbie in cryptography (I know the basic RSA, AES stuffs) and am interested in anonymous authentication systems. Looks like David Chaum is the godly figure in the field. I see lots of people ...
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1answer
82 views

Exactly how slow is asymmetric encryption?

I'm currently doing a project on RSA, and have just come across this website. https://www.namecheap.com/support/knowledgebase/article.aspx/798/67/what-is-an-rsa-key-used-for On here, it says that ...
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2answers
73 views

Is there a way to do single key-pair asymmetric encryption?

All of the information on asymmetric encryption I can find uses key-exchanging to get a mutual symmetric key. What I am trying to do is encrypt a message with a public key and have it only readable ...
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1answer
110 views

State of the art techniques for Anonymous Authentication?

What are the state of the art techniques for Anonymous Authentication? What are the most popular ones? The problem domain I am considering is with respect to different users accessing cloud content; ...
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1answer
150 views

How to generate a bilinear group of prime order p for key generation

I asked the same question before. But an unregistered user i haven't any privilege to comment. So i am repeating my same question. I am trying to implement an IEEE Paper In Cryptography. I read many ...
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15 views

How to generate a bilinear group of prime order p [duplicate]

I am trying to implement an IEEE Paper In Cryptography. I read many reference regarding an RSA key generation. But i am confused with above statement. Please someone explain me What it says with ...
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1answer
38 views

What part of an RSA key is referred to by the number of bits? [duplicate]

When we speak about 4096- or 2048-bit RSA keys, what part of the key is this number of bits? The public key comprises both the modulus and the public exponent, and the strength of the key can also be ...
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2answers
74 views

Securely generating auth tokens

(Disclaimer: I'm an experienced server-side Java programmer, but with little crypto experience.) Objective: I've got a login server which, given a login+password pair, should issue a unique auth ...
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37 views

Is this ECC based messaging method secure?

I developing an encrypted messaging for ZeroNet (aP2P file-based network, website: zeronet.io) and would like to have some guidelines if any of this could work. My first idea: In ZeroNet every user ...
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Leading 00 in RSA public/private key file

I found these following values ALWAYS have the leading 00 in public/private key, public key: modulus private key: modulus, p,q, d mod (p-1), d mod (q-1), coefficient e.g., modulus ...
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Strength of a cryptography algorithm [duplicate]

I'm just read this article from Atmel corporation in comparing RSA with ECC cryptography algorithms. First of all please read these two paragraphs quoted from the article: P1: Strength of an ...
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1answer
84 views

Relationship between exponent and modulus in RSA (as RSA properties as listed in X.509)

In one of my assignments, I had the following question (Please read on. Not a homework assignment :) ): X.509 (1998 version) lists properties that RSA keys must satisfy to be secure. One such ...
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3answers
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Prevent replay attack without storage

I am designing a set of low-power sensing motes. Each mote will communicate to a central base over RF. I want the mote to be able to authenticate itself with the base, and send its data without being ...
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Private and public keys, how do they relate mathematically? [closed]

Assuming everyone here knows the basics of a public private key, then you know the keys are mathematically related. My question is, what is the math? I really would like an in detail algorithm of the ...
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1answer
120 views

Private and Public Keys

I have a very basic understanding of encryption and the encapsulation process, but for the life of me I can't grasp how public keys and private keys work, how they're made, and how they're exchanged. ...
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1answer
45 views

Are private and public key sizes of Elliptic curve related?

I'm new to elliptic curve cryptography. I just want to know in the case where I take a random number (private key) and find its associated public key, does the size of the public key depends upon ...
2
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56 views

EdDSA Verification vs. Cofactorless Verification

In the EdDSA for more curve paper the authors defines: Keys An EdDSA secret key is a $b$-bit string $k$. The hash $H(k) = (h_0, h_1, ... , h_{2b−1})$ determines an integer $s = ...
2
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1answer
47 views

PublicKey Unknown Encoding

I have a public key: ...
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EC algorithm to derive bits/keys and sign/verify [duplicate]

Looking at the question “ECDSA vs ECIES vs ECDH” it appears that you can either have a tool that can derive keys or bits, or can be used to sign and verify something. Is there an EC way to do both ...
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2answers
92 views

Possible to guess RSA public key $e$ using $n$ and $\phi$

We know that if $n$ and $\phi$ is known, then it is possible to find $p$ and $q$ (initial prime numbers). I have following the questions: Assume the public key $e$ is not known, how difficult would ...
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33 views

How to use a secret to allow the generation of public keys, where the private keys can be calculated later

Alice has a secret S and publishes some public information P, about S which is insufficient ...
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3answers
687 views

Is it possible to reduce the size of an RSA key?

The details about what an RSA key is made up of are explained succinctly here. Is it possible to reduce the amount of data that's usually packaged with the (private) key and then derive it later?
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0answers
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Can I expand the modular of an encryption scheme?

Take the lifted ElGamal as an example: suppose the original ciphertext is $<g^y ~mod~q,~g^m~mod~q>$. After some calculations, $m$ could be large enough to do modular. But I don't want $m$ to be ...
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Signing integers and UUIDs and restoring them from a third party server without tampering

I'm educating myself about cryptography. I know this is a long one, but please, bear with me. :) Now I have a scenario in my mind and I'd like to ask if what I've thought is sound (enough), what more ...
2
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2answers
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Initializing PGP keys by one side

I am using a PGP method to encrypt and decrypt messages shared between users A and B. Upon the start of a message exchange is the initialization of the public and secret keys by both Users. Lets say ...
8
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1answer
211 views

Signature to prove of ownership of arbitrary sized data

I am familiar with public key signatures, but I was wondering if there is a method to accomplish the following. Suppose I publish a file (say a PDF article) on a peer to peer network. How can I ...
2
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1answer
45 views

What is the most an adversary can do in the context of public key masquerading?

Suppose two parties A and B are using a public-key encryption scheme in order to communicate securely. A and B both have a public/private key pair: $$ A: (P_A, S_A), B: (P_B, S_B)$$ and A already ...