An asymmetric cipher is an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communication.

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How should I check the received ephemeral Diffie-Hellman public keys?

In my application I'm doing a DH key exchange, where both sides generate their own ephemeral key. No static keys are used. I am trying to make my application resistant against an active attack and ...
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Why develop Edward curve formulas that deviate from unification?

Edward curves were considered initially because they provide a unified formula for both doubling and addition, thus having inherent side-channel resistance. But a lot of work has been done recently ...
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Security of RSA for paranoids with padding?

RSA for Paranoids (RSAP) (in cryptobytes v3n1), also known as Unbalanced RSA, is a variant of RSA proposed in 1995 by Adi Shamir, as a mean to increase the RSA public modulus size while keeping ...
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What is the SSL private key file format?

I was researching about how to encrypt with RSA. I understood everything but not the format of the private keys. In the phpseclib (RSA in PHP), you can import your private key (private.key format) ...
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Can RSA encryption produce collisions?

In RSA, a message is encrypted by $m^e \pmod N$. $N$ is the modulus, $m$ is the message and $e$ is the public exponent. (I know that $m$ should not be greater than $N$.) My question is, can $m^e$ be ...
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Is sharing the modulus for multiple RSA key pairs secure?

In the public-key system RSA scheme, each user holds beyond a public modulus $m$ a public exponent, $e$, and a private exponent, $d$. Suppose that Bob's private exponent is learned by other users. ...
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Why does the recommended key size between symmetric and asymmetric encryption differ greatly?

In various articles it is mentioned that for secure communications, the recommended key sizes are 128-bit key size for symmetric encryption (which makes it $2^{128}$ possible keys?) and 2048-bit key ...
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How feasible would it be to generate 300 million public key pairs in 8 hours?

Assume there is a hypothetical situation where one would need to generate hundreds of millions of public key pairs of reasonable strength in a limited time. What would be required in terms of ...
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If RSA is only used to encrypt symmetric keys which are random, what's wrong with textbook RSA?

IND-CPA is used to protect against frequency analysis AFAICT. But if RSA is only used to encrypt symmetric keys (AFAICT) then what's wrong with using only textbook RSA because random keys are very ...
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Why does key generation take an input $1^k$, and how do I represent it in practice?

In my lecture, the lecturer said: Let $K$ be the key generation algorithm. Given a security parameter represented in unary, $1^k$, $K(1^k)$ will output a keypair $(pk; sk)$, known as the public ...
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Can one have an authentic, but repudiable, message without a previously shared secret?

Bob wants to send a message to Alice, such that Alice can be sure that the message came from Bob, but can't prove it to anyone else. If I understand right, this means that the same message could have ...
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Cycle attack on RSA

I originally posted this question in the mathematics section, you can see it here. Let $p$ and $q$ be large primes, $n=pq$ and $e : 0<e<\phi(n), \space gcd(e, \phi(n))=1$ the public encyption ...
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Can an encryption method be used as a hash function?

As I understand, there are a few requirements for a good hash function. Hard to find any message from a given hash Hard to find any 2 messages which give the same hash A single bit change in the ...
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What makes RSA secure by using prime numbers?

I am just learning about the RSA algorithm. Looking at the first two steps: Choose two distinct prime numbers $p$ and $q$. Compute $n = pq$. I have some probably stupid questions: Why do $p$ ...
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Knowing pre-encryption data, can we find the private key CryptoLocker used?

One of our users seems to have been hit by CryptoLocker. As a result, he has a hard drive full of encrypted files. The ransom-ware claims to have used public key encryption on the files. If we know ...
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Alice trusts Bob only when Bob trusts Alice

some story first: Alice and Bob both have public/private key pairs. Now Bob wants Alice to sign his public key id. Alice agrees but only when Bob signs the public key id of her. Is this something ...
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Given enough RSA signature values, is it possible to determine the public key value?

Given enough RSA signature values, is it possible to determine which public key is required to verify the values? Could there be enough information to establish which key is required? Is there ...
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Is there a public key encryption scheme with optimal key size?

Symmetric encryption schemes such as AES have known security levels equal to their key sizes (i.e. breaking an encryption with an $n$ bit key needs about $2^n$ work steps). Elliptic curve encryption ...
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Signature to prove of ownership of arbitrary sized data

I am familiar with public key signatures, but I was wondering if there is a method to accomplish the following. Suppose I publish a file (say a PDF article) on a peer to peer network. How can I ...
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Proof of Communication

I desire an algorithm in which Alice sends a block of data $X$ to Bob, with proof that the data was both sent and received. Ideally this would take the form of a public-key signature of the block $X$ ...
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Is the Couvreur et al. polynomial time attack on McEliece practical?

There's a new e-print out on arXiv titled "A Polynomial Time Attack against Algebraic Geometry Code Based Public Key Cryptosystems" by Alain Couvreur, Irene Márquez-Corbella and Ruud Pellikaan: ...
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Could this “symmetric RSA” scheme provide key compromise resistant communications?

This question, and fkraiem's answer to it, made me wonder about the security and practicality of using "symmetric RSA" to provide a partially compromise-resistant secure channel. Specifically, assume ...
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Applications of Group Ciphers

I've been reading a paper [1], and I've ran across something called a "Group Cipher", which is similar to homomorphic encryption, with an important difference. In homomorphic encryption we have an ...
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What is the importance of Modular arithmetic in cryptography?

Why do we use modular arithmetic so often in Cryptography?
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What is stopping someone from saving encrypted info, and decoding it later?

When I send encrypted data to a website, using public key encryption, what is stopping someone who is listening from storing my encrypted data, and decryption it in a few years after they have ...
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Why do we need asymmetric algorithms for key exchange?

In SSL protocols, both symmetric and asymmetric algorithms are used. Why is it so? The symmetric algorithms are more secure and easier to implement. Why are asymmetric algorithms usually preferred in ...
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How much computing resource is required to brute-force RSA?

It's been over 30 years since Rivest, Shamir and Adleman first publicly described their algorithm for public-key cryptography; and the intelligence community is thought to have known about it for ...
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Advantages using Diffie-Hellman or ElGamal

For what kind of usage should we prefer using Diffie-Hellman in order to exchange keys instead of ElGamal, and most important why should we use one or the other? I do not see a clear difference ...
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Generating Random Primes

Although this has been extensively discussed around here, I'm curious whether my approach makes sense, or I should just stick to "the standard version". I'm implementing some homomorphic encryption ...
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How are timestamps verified?

You put an input and the hash value comes as an output then when someone puts the input the hash function it is applied to see if it is the same hash original value is stored in some database , that ...
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Given enough RSA ciphertext, is it possible to determine which key was used?

Given enough RSA ciphertext, is it possible to determine which public key was used to generate the ciphertext? Presume an unknown public key that was used to generate RSA ciphertext, and we have ...
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Low Public Exponent Attack for RSA

I'm having trouble understanding the algorithm for finding the original message $m$, when there is a small public exponent. Here is the example I'm trying to follow (you can also read it in the 'Low ...
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Exposing RSA private-key data… bad?

We know that exposing $p$, or $q$ or $\phi(n)$ results in trivial attacks on RSA since they allow us to factor $n$ and to compute the private exponent $d$. In OpenSSL (and most RSA implementations) ...
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How does a chosen plaintext attack on RSA work?

How can one run a chosen plaintext attack on RSA? If I can send some plaintexts and get the ciphertexts, how can I find a relation between them which helps me to crack another ciphertext?
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How does Clifford Cocks 'Non-Secret Encryption' work?

I have read Clifford Cocks "A Note on 'Non-secret Encryption'" and thought I would try to implement this, but I don't seem to be able to get it to work. I'm obviously missing something. From the ...
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How do other, non-RSA algorithms, compare to the PKCS #1 standard?

Arguably the PKCS suite of standards have a profit-oriented bias as they are promoted by RSA and promote their algorithms over others in the form of RFCs and other means. I'm considering the ...
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Why do we encrypt-then mac but sign-then-encrypt?

This question was asked in comments on my answer to should we sign then encrypt or encrypt then sign. I think posing the question as a separate entity is best, so: The general advice for applying ...
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Implement deniable encryption with AES/RSA

I'm on a crypto app using OpenSSL (I'm more an implementer/cryptographer than a cryptologist), mainly as a hobby, for now. My app will be able to encrypt a file (not a container) with symmetric or ...
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How can I determine the GPG/PGP key ID from the RSA modulus?

According to http://www.pgp.net/pgpnet/pgp-faq/pgp-faq-keys.html#key-public-key-forgery, key ID is some lower bits sequence from the modulus (i.e. the $n$ variable): A PGP key ID is just the ...
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Verbatim of early work on public-key cryptography?

In late 1997, the history of public-key cryptography was turned around with the announcement by the CESG (April 2000 archive) that public-key cryptography was theorized in a 1970 note [1] by James ...
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Why the symmetric key layer in PGP?

I've been familiarizing myself with the basics of PGP. If I understand correctly, PGP symmetrically encrypts the data of interest using a random single-use key, then encrypts the encrypted data and ...
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Can a computationally unbounded adversary break any public-key encryption scheme?

Assume there is a public-key encryption scheme $(KeyGen, Enc, Dec)$ with perfect correctness (i.e., for all messages M and valid key-pairs (PK,SK), we have $Dec_{SK}(Enc_{PK}(M))=M$). Will there ...
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Why should the RSA private exponent have the same size as the modulus?

Consider the generation of an RSA key pair with a given modulus size $n$ and a known, small public exponent $e$ (typically $e = 3$ or $e = 65537$). A common method is to generate two random primes ...
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In RSA, do I calculate d from e or e from d?

In the original paper introducing RSA, it is implied that one should first choose $d$ and then calulate $e$ from $p$, $q$, and $d$. However, I have found in other places (such as the wikipedia article ...
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Do public/private pairs work both ways?

Public/private key algorithms such as RSA encrypt a message with a private key but only decrypted with another (mathematically related) key. Can the public key decrypt the messages encrypted with ...
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Public key crypto without modular arithmetic?

This comment from Reddit math, in response to a statement about how people can communicate secrets to each other with a third party listening, has a very small, simple example of public key ...
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The utility of elliptic curve cryptography

Suppose that the only public key cryptography schemes that we knew were Diffie Hellman, RSA and ElGamal. How much would this set civilization back? Are there important applications of elliptic curve ...
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Random Coin Flip using ElGamal and a Trusted Party

An old exam question I am trying to figure out: Consider the following protocol for two parties to flip a fair coin. Trusted party T publishes her public key pk A chooses a random bit ...
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How can I remove my personal data from my PGP public key?

According to this Q&A-discussion it is possible to remove all personal data (name and mail address) that is attached to a public key. What steps do I have to follow in order to remove all ...
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Is a known plaintext, ciphertext, and public-key a viable attack on RSA?

Assume Alice and Bob are using RSA to create a common session key and Cindy is listening, attempting to obtain the session key. Alice and Bob each have their public- and private-key pairs ...