An asymmetric cipher is an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypting key need not be kept secret to ensure a private communication.

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what's the advantages of identity-based systems over certificate-based ones?

Actually, I'm not familiar to how identity-based and certificate-based systems work, so ,can anyone give me a detail and comprehensive answer to this question? Moreover, in what environments the ...
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144 views

Publicly exposed hash of private key

Would exposing a cryptographic hash function's digest (e.g. SHA-3) of RSA private key data compromise the key? If so, what are the possible (cryptanalysis-) vectors for attacking the key if an ...
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136 views

Camellia cipher - is it a symmetric or asymmetric cipher?

I read a wiki page about Camellia cipher and know that it is a block cipher that can use 128-bit, 192-bit or 256-bit keys. But I cant find any information about if its a symmetric cipher (uses one key ...
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125 views

Public Keys on Social Media

Is there any problem with using social media (i.e. Facebook) as a directory of public keys? For example, couldn't Alice put a note containing $(g^a \bmod p, g, p)$ on her Facebook page so she could ...
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379 views

How does OAEP improve the security of RSA?

The heart of OAEP algorithm used for RSA encryption are the cryptographic hash functions $H$ and $G$. Does everybody (so also an adversary) know these functions? If YES: How does it help the ...
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481 views

risk of attacker decrypting RSA ciphertext without public or private key

As I describe in my previous question I am trying to decide if it's worth it for me to use the Offline Private Key Protocol in creating some long term private archives, instead of just going with a ...
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593 views

Do known-plaintext attacks exist for public key encryption?

In asymmetric ciphers we publish the public key for anyone, which means an attacker can encrypt any message they want and compare the ciphertext and plaintext without communicating with the owner of ...
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2answers
109 views

When is each key used when encrypting an email using OpenPGP?

When you send an email using PGP to encrypt emails, is the recipients public key used to encrypt the email, or is your private key used? Are they both used? At what points do each of the four keys ...
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312 views

What is the strength of unpadded RSA?

I would like to use unpadded RSA for homomorphic encryption in a toy P2P game, for things like fair coin flips and shuffling. How many bits of security does unpadded RSA have, in relation to its key ...
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140 views

Is it possible to ensure security with zero pre-shared information?

Is it possible to secure a communications channel against both passive (sniffing) and active (injecting / MitM) attackers without either legitimate party knowing any pre-shared information? I know ...
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138 views

Do any one-key-of-many cryptographic schemes exist?

I'm pretty sure I understand how public/private key cryptography works. Anybody can encrypt a message using a well-known public key, but only the person who holds the private key can decrypt it. My ...
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161 views

Brute force attack expected running time

I am a bit confused about the expected running times of brute force attacks on different cryptosystems. So let's assume a key size of $2^n$ bits. Symmetric key cryptography: $E(brute)$ = ...
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184 views

Public-key cryptosystems without poly-time quantum attacks

It's well-known that Shor's algorithm can solve integer factorization, discrete logarithm and discrete log over elliptic curves in cubic time. This implies that cryptosystems like RSA, ElGamal, and ...
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249 views

RSA 896 vs 1024 vs 2048 in Javascript?

I am currently working on a secure messaging website and I had been using RSA 2048 for encryption, decryption and signing of messages but I found it to be EXTREMELY LAGGY so i've moved to 1024. I did ...
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295 views

Some cryptography security questions

I recently had a discussion with a friend of mine about cryptography. As we are both no experts, I thought that I could better resolve are dispute here :-). My friend said that when he used public ...
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2k views

What makes RSA secure by using prime numbers?

I am just learning about the RSA algorithm. Looking at the first two steps: Choose two distinct prime numbers $p$ and $q$. Compute $n = pq$. I have some probably stupid questions: Why do $p$ ...
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237 views

Requiring a “supervisor” key pair and a “user” key pair to decrypt multiple-recipient messages

I've been toying with some encryption scenarios recently. One of the hard ones I came across is a multi-party system. So we have Bob -- The person who sends the message (and knows it's recipients) ...
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253 views

Why is RSA usually limited to messages up to 1 block

I'm wondering why RSA encryption usually is only used for messages that fit into one block. For larger messages hybrid encryption in combination with symmetric ciphers like AES seem to be the solution ...
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122 views

What's the strategy for future directions in cryptography? Bigger numbers/faster searching, or new methods, say, of factoring?

I'm taking a course in cryptography, and I would value any comments. This is not too technical a question, but more about directions or strategy in cryptography. My question is, is public key ...
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142 views

Public keys and their protocols

I'm having difficulties understanding exactly what this protocol means: $S \to D : \{N_S , S\}K_D$ $D \to S : \{N_S , N_D \}K_S$ $S \to D : \{N_D \}K_D$ "where $S$ represents the supervisor’s ...
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229 views

Algorithm Design for only Mutual Information Sharing

Bob and Alice each have a bit string they want to keep private. They each want to know what the bitwise AND of their two strings would be without telling the other or anyone else listening to their ...
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155 views

Signature scheme with two private keys, neither derivable from the other

Is there any scheme, ideally one widely used or at least widely available, where you can treat both the signing and verifying keys as secret? Basically, the functionality I'm looking for is this: ...
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58 views

Exchanging session keys over symmetric-key channel?

I know session keys are exchanged (in SSL e.g.) over public-key cryptography channels but I was wondering if there are already known algorithms/methods for exchanging session keys over a symmetric-key ...
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74 views

What differences between Menezes–Vanstone ECC and ElGamal ECC?

After researching ECC encryption, I found that we can use ElGamal cryptosystem with elliptic curve and can we use Menezes-Vanstone cryptosystem with elliptic curve. What is the essential difference ...
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117 views

Is it necessary to generate a private key for each encryption process?

I read about Asymmetric key cryptography like EG-ECC , RSA, ECDH. I understand the concept of mathematics to these algorithms. But I have wondered about the public key for sender and private key for ...
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91 views

Why do we encrypt-then mac but sign-then-encrypt?

This question was asked in comments on my answer to should we sign then encrypt or encrypt then sign. I think posing the question as a separate entity is best, so: The general advice for applying ...
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244 views

Computing p and q from private key

We are given n (public modulus) where n=pq and e (encryption exponent). Then I was able to crack the private key d, using Wieners attack. So now, I have (n,e,d). My question is, is there a way to ...
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104 views

Verify Messages to Embedded Device

I'm building an embedded device that I plan on distributing. Periodically the device will poll my server to check for updates and commands. I'd like the device to verify that any messages(JSON strings ...
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234 views

Ed25519 choice of private key implementation

This answer to another question describes the different values chosen as private key and public key by various Ed25516 implementations. What are the advantages / disadvantages of each? (Table ...
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330 views

using Post-quantum asymmetric ciphers instead of RSA

We can't trust RSA to encrypt our Emails so what is best post-quantum cryptography system as alternative for RSA which provide good security and don't be breakable? because McEliece cryptosystem looks ...
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121 views

When to prefer exchanging cryptographic certificates over exchanging only public keys?

Let's think of the following case: A group of peers want to exchange messages with each other. They use public-key cryptography to sign and encrypt messages. Anyone with any name can join the ...
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220 views

Public Key Encryption with forward secrecy

Is there a known non-trivial system with plausibly secure public key encryption where: 1. $\;\;$ the $\:$ time $\:$ function is efficiently computable 2. $\;\;$ [pubkey,privkey] $\:$ pairs are ...
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276 views

How are the primes used to generate RSA keys?

I am confused about how keys in RSA asymmetric encryption are generated and what the implications for open communications are. Textbooks say the one-way function is merely two primes (with some ...
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Calculating private keys in the RSA cryptosystem

The number $43733$ was chosen as base for an implementation of the RSA system. $M=19985$ is the message, that was encrypted with help of a public key $K=53$. What is the plaintext text? What is the ...
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The modulus of RSA public key

I am studying the RSA cryptosystem. The public key consists of $(n, e)$, the modulus (product of two large primes), and the encryption exponent. I want to separate the modulus $n$ and exponent $e$. A ...
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454 views

Using ECDSA keys for encryption

I know that ECDSA is used for signature only, but I wonder if I can use the public/private Elliptic Curve keys for encryption too. I have ECDSA SSH public keys and I wonder if I can use them to ...
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137 views

How to design a cryptographically secure file hosting service

How one would go about design something like Google Drive/Dropbox providing the following features: files are encrypted and decrypted on the client files can be synced between devices the service ...
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How vulnerable is RSA when using it to encode ~1000s of datasets with 500bytes each? How easy can the private key passphrase be hacked?

I know that this is not the best use case for RSA, but for a customer of mine I have to encode user data on the server in a way so that it can be decoded/downloaded by the customer through a "secure" ...
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163 views

Bandwidth and block size for Paillier cryptosystem

Can someone clarify what is meant by the terms cryptosystem bandwidth and block size for public key cryptosystems; The context is the Paillier cryptosystem and its Damgard-Jurik generalisation. My ...
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155 views

How can a key pair be derived from an arbitrary hash?

If I correctly understand the concept of a "brain wallet" in BitCoin, you start with a passphrase, generate the hash of the passphrase, then somehow derive a public / private key from that to use as ...
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300 views

Why is proof-by-reduction needed (for Elgamal proof of security, for example)?

The textbook proof for Elgamal encryption basically reduces to the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption (DDH). Elgamal: $Gen(.): x \xleftarrow{R} \mathbb{Z}_p$; $Enc(m,g^x): r \xleftarrow{R} ...
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implications of SSH server key compromission when authenticating users against a public key

Friday we had a disagreement with a colleague of mine about the implications of SSH server key compromission The question was stated as this : What could a hacker do while provided with the SSH ...
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290 views

Encryption with private key?

we normally always encrypt by public key and decrypt with private key. If i encrypt with private key, then its still secure as normal PKI ? i mean known-plain-text will not take private key on the ...
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111 views

McEliece for streaming data

Under the assumption that there exists a real-world implementation of the McEliece scheme, could it be applied to streaming data as is? By that I mean in 'block cipher mode'? I've read that McEliece ...
2
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1answer
139 views

Is there a way to provide proof of batch RSA security?

Suppose we have two encrypted messages with two different public key issued from the one server. There is a client who wants to send these to messages to the server. In the middle there is an ...
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2answers
115 views

Can you give me an example of any PKC encrytion algorithm with coins?

I'm reading a Definition of Public Key Encryption and here say: ... Enc is a (possibly) probabilistic polynomial time encryption algorithm which takes as input a public key $pk$, a $m\in M$ and ...
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Why does Merkle's Puzzle requires Eve quadratic complexity of effort to break the system?

The way Applied cryptography 2ED explains the puzzle is as follows (I paraphrase it): Bob generates 2^20 messages of the form x,y where ...
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202 views

Asymmetric format preserving encryption?

I would like to encrypt a string asymmetrically. I would like the ciphertext to be as short as as plaintext. (or shorter) I've read about format preserving encryption functions - are there ...
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94 views

What happen if a asymmetric crypto-system deals with only one key

Assume there is a crypto algorithm that deals with matrices to encrypt and decrypt. Regardless of the specification of such algorithm, what if the algorithm assumes that two parties can securely agree ...
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174 views

EC equivalent for RSA-OAEP

I have some questions regarding aforementioned subject: Is there a EC equivalent of RSA-OAEP key transport/encryption algorithm ? Is ECIES-KEM sufficient ?