creation of (real or pseudo) random numbers (or bits).

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7
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565 views

Will X9.31 remain a secure & acceptable deterministic random generator beyond 2015?

I am actually looking for available crypto libraries including a deterministic random generator for the purpose of a dedicated crypto key generator unit. I have a simple question about the X9.31 based ...
7
votes
2answers
296 views

How do you test randomness?

Suppose I receive a list of 1 million coinflips, and I want to know how likely it is that the list was randomly generated. My first thought would be to count the number of heads and tails, which ...
7
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3answers
509 views

Testing the Fortuna random number generator?

I have implemented the Fortuna random number generator as described in chapter 10 of "Practical Cryptography" (Ferguson and Schneier, Wiley, 2003), the result can be found at ...
7
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3answers
989 views

ANSI X9.31: the purpose of the date/time vector in the PRNG?

What is the exact purpose of the date/time vector $dt$ in the ANSI X9.31 PRNG? $$ I := E_K(dt) $$ $$ R := E_K(I \oplus V_{old}) $$ $$ V_{new} := E_K(R \oplus I) $$ Specifically, the document seems ...
7
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3answers
176 views

Generating random non-repeating numbers from a small group

I read this Q&A which gave a clever solution: feed an incrementing index into a block key cipher as a way of producing non-repeating random numbers. The problem is the block size of all the good ...
7
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2answers
1k views

Is FIPS 140-2's “Continuous random number generator test” practical?

Section 4.9.2 of FIPS PUB 140-2 specifies, amongst other things, a "Continuous random number generator test." Here are the relavant bits: If each call to a[n] RNG produces blocks of n bits ...
6
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3answers
723 views

Initialize a PRNG with a password

Let's assume that we have a secure PRNG. Is it "safe" to initialize it with password, or seed based on a password like SHA256(password)? If yes, is it "safe" to generate an RSA or DSA key from it? ...
6
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4answers
782 views

Are there any practical ways to transfer random data securely?

The owner of the random.org service recommends that you do not use randomly generated numbers from their website in cryptographic keys. This makes sense, but it got me wondering. Is it possible to ...
6
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2answers
3k views

Using a Hash as a secure PRNG

I was just looking at some NIST PRNG recommendations, specifically at Hash_DRBG. I read briefly through the algorithm, and even though it is not overly complex, it still seems unnecessary to me. I ...
6
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1answer
976 views

How much entropy is lost via hashing when you add known or low entropy data?

(I updated the title, as I think there was some confusion as to the question) Here's the question: For example, if I have a bit stream that is 64K bytes long and there is about 16 *8 bits worth of ...
6
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3answers
8k views

Can Pre-Paid Cards be cracked?

Is it possible to deduce the original function that used to generate those prepaid cards number that are used for charging your mobile phone credits? For example: If I've collected about 1000 of ...
6
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2answers
1k views

New PRG from old

Is the following statement true: If $G: \{0,1\}^k \to \{0,1\}^n$ is a PRG, then so is $G':\{0,1\}^{k+l} \to \{0,1\}^{n+l}$ defined by $$G'(x||x')=G(x)||x'$$ where $x \in \{0,1\}^k$ and $x' \in ...
6
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1answer
770 views

Does using modulo (%) affect quality of randomness?

I'm writing a small script that generates random non-signed decimal integers within a certain range of values. I'm using GNU od, with the following command: ...
6
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3answers
527 views

Deterministically combine more than one source of entropy

What is the proper/canonical way to do this? For example, $0 < r1 < 1$ and $0 < r2 < 1$. Presuming uniformly distributed probabilities for the two, combining/averaging them is going to ...
6
votes
3answers
649 views

Is this a good entropy collector and whitening technique?

I'm just reviewing a program someone wrote to provide high quality random data using an entropy collector and a hash based whitening technique. I'll try summarize the process: Collect entropy from ...
6
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1answer
2k views

RSA random prime generator

What is the current standard of random bit generators? RSA relies on two large prime numbers, and I am wondering what is the algorithm used to generate such numbers?
6
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1answer
180 views

Can it ever be impossible to invert a PRNG?

I've read about the possibility of inverting the Mersenne Twister after 624 numbers of output. 624 matches the state size of my implementation of the Twister. Coincidence? If the generator only ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Correct way to map random number to defined range?

Say that we have a secure random number generation that outputs 32 bit random numbers, so it's output is a true random number between 0 and a MAX. What is the best way to map this random number to a ...
6
votes
1answer
540 views

Can hash functions improve a lousy PRNG?

If I have a poor PRNG, could a cryptographically secure hash function make a better output? Say the PRNG can produce as much numbers as you wish, reasonably random, but not good enough to be used in ...
6
votes
2answers
286 views

Unit testing a library RNG and its seeding for practical security

Suppose I have a cryptography library that provides me with a black-box random number generator that is supposed to be suitable for long-lived key generation. (Under the hood it may be assumed to use ...
6
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1answer
51 views

How distinct are the meanings of the terms “CSPRNG,” “DRBG” and “stream cipher”?

Are there universal, consensus definitions for the following terms? Cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator ("CSPRNG") Deterministic random bit generator ("DRBG") Stream cipher ...
6
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2answers
171 views

Hardware Random Numbers - How to convert Voltage signal into binary?

I have a physical unit, e.g. a resistor. I bias it with current and measure the voltage. Let us assume that the fluctuations ($\Delta V=V-<V>$) of this voltage signal are random. Now, $\Delta V$ ...
6
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1answer
263 views

Is it possible to find a Mersenne Twister seed given only the first output?

Suppose I have a Mersenne Twister seeded with some unknown value, and I’ve been given the first output. Given only this first output, and no other information, is it possible to derive the unknown ...
6
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1answer
261 views

What exactly could be accomplished with a backdoor in Dual_EC_DRBG?

Assume that some entity really holds the private key corresponding to the recommended/dubious constants of Dual_EC_DRBG. According to this presentation, they would be able to reconstruct the internal ...
6
votes
1answer
474 views

Crack linear congruential generator knowing every other word in sequence

I need to crack one of the example of linear congruential generator. I have $X_{n+1} = (a \cdot X_n + b) \bmod m$ and I know every other word in the output sequence: ..., 3158, ..., 1888, ..., ...
6
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1answer
643 views

Interpretation of the results of NIST (p)NRG suite

I have problems interpreting the NIST (sts-2.1.2) suite results. After running the statistics with 100 samples (each sample of 1000000 byte length) a new prng i got this result: ...
5
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2answers
1k views

Why is sharing the seed and using SecureRandom “deterministically” so bad?

I've recently been reading an article about "using cryptography to store credentials", and I would love it someone explained this in more detail… Up until Android 4.1, Android used a SecureRandom ...
5
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3answers
2k views

Estimating bits of entropy

Best ways to estimate average bits of entropy in a byte stream. I know there are different statistical tests out there (NIST, Dieharder, etc), which all do different ways of analyzing entropy. What ...
5
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2answers
863 views

Good enough deterministic PRNG based on hashes

Lets say I have a seed named iv which has a decent amount of entropy. Are there any glaring issues with the following? First 64 bytes are generated by SHA512(iv) Next 64 bytes are generated by ...
5
votes
1answer
691 views

Mixing Entropy Sources by XOR?

Assume that I have two sources of entropy (say, a hardware RNG and a CSPRNG) and that the two sources are independent (do not know anything about the internal state of the other RNG). Can I mix them ...
5
votes
4answers
936 views

With a true random number generator at hand, how to implement one-time pad?

I have a Raspberry Pi single-board computer that happened to have an hardware true random number generator, based on some quantum effects on the processor silicon, baked into its BCM2835 chip and I ...
5
votes
2answers
409 views

Is Curve25519 vulnerable to private key exposure in the case of a bad RNG?

I'm really excited by what I've learned of advancements in elliptic-curve cryptography. Curve25519 seems to be a great choice at this point in time, but if I recall correctly, some elliptic curve ...
5
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2answers
1k views

Are the SHA family hash outputs practically random?

Say I hashed the output from a random number generator (with nonce), would the resulting SHA256 hash be as random as the inputted number? And If I used the first 5 hex characters, and then used the ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

True random numbers generated by sensors

Is using sensor raw data a good way of generating true random numbers? I mean using an IPhone's gyro/accelerometer raw output as a base for generating an array of true random numbers.
5
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4answers
1k views

Stretching a random seed to maximize entropy

I'm using a random number generator that requires me to pass it a big (several kilobytes) pool of random data for initialization. I've gathered entropy from various system metrics (free memory, ...
5
votes
2answers
205 views

Fast post-processing for broken RDRAND

Let's assume that the Intel RDRAND instruction does not return fully random numbers, e.g. because it has been engineered with a backdoor for the NSA. If the Intel RDRAND instruction is used directly ...
5
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1answer
399 views

I need an opinion of encryption method I thought of in High school

First, I'm really not into cryptography, but have some basic knowledge. This was a thought experiment (and later exercise for my programming skills), but even though it was long time ago and I tried ...
5
votes
2answers
323 views

Does a hash function in chaining mode or in counter mode make a better pseudo-random number generator?

I have two pseudorandom generators: $f_1$ takes a random seed $l_0||r_0$ $\in \{0,1\}^{160}$ as input and outputs $r_1||r_2|| \dots ||r_k$, where $l_i||r_i = \operatorname{SHA-1}(l_{i-1}||r_{i-1})$ ...
5
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1answer
655 views

Secure AES Key Generation via Salsa20?

I am not creating my own cryptography or anything, but to learn about the Dos and Donts of cryptography, I am looking into AES encryption and ways to generate keys for that. As far as I've ...
5
votes
1answer
525 views

How to generate unique (random) numbers that can be traced back to a unique source number?

I need to generate unique (random) numbers that I can trace back to a unique source number. For example: source number A can generate numbers A1, A1, A3 .... Am source number B can generate numbers ...
5
votes
1answer
147 views

Formal relationship between encryption and random number generators?

Cryptographically secure random number generators seem to have similar properties to symmetric encryption: initial seed is permuted to produce a random numbers (key and ciphertext) given the seed, ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

How many bits can be safely extracted from the BBS generator at each step?

The Blum-Blum-Shub generator is a deterministic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator with security reducible to that of integer factorization. Setup: Secretly chose random primes $P$, $Q$, with $P\equiv ...
5
votes
2answers
188 views

Generating non-repeating N-bit IVs, which are indistinguishable from randomness

I'm implementing a protocol which needs a 64-bit IV for every encrypted packet. The cipher in use (AES-GCM, more or less as specified in RFC 4106) does not require that these IVs are random, only ...
5
votes
1answer
161 views

Proof that Alternating Step Generator and modifed ASG' have equivalent security?

The Alternating Step Generator (ASG) is a PRNG combining 3 LFSRs. Output of the ASG is the XOR of the output of two clock-gated LFSRs. At each step, a single one of these LFSRs is clocked, according ...
5
votes
1answer
164 views

How to construct a next bit predictor from a distinguisher

I read the claim, without proof, that it is possible to construct a next bit predictor for any PRNG given an oracle distinguisher for that PRNG and vice versa. How do I prove that? A distinguisher ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Good entropy source for generating openssl keys

I need to generate a CA (4096-bit RSA) and server keys for openvpn and I want them to be "top quality". Here is my plan: gather entropy from multiple sources (saving individual files): FreeBSD ...
5
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1answer
322 views

How can I take advantage of repeated patterns in non random RSA prime factors?

I am researching vulnerable RSA moduli which are composed of primes generated with poor entropy. Having a list of these primes I searched for variable sized repeated patterns among them and I noticed ...
5
votes
0answers
323 views

Odds of false error detection in a randomness test using the chi-squared test?

Common Criteria classifies the requirements for true Random Number Generators, and specifies how these should be tested against failures (these can occur accidentally, or following deliberate attack, ...
5
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2answers
410 views

Relation between key size and PRNG state size

Some (supposedly) cryptographically secure PRNGs have an internal state of only 160 bits or less. When the algorithm is otherwise properly designed, that seems like enough to generate a 128 bit key ...
4
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4answers
704 views

Why isn't the alternating step generator used more often?

According to the Wikipedia entry for the Alternating Step pseudorandom number generator, there is no public cryptanalysis for this device since it was invented back in 1987 by C.G. Gunther. I have ...