Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.

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Randomness of a Key in a One Time Pad

The keys used in an One Time Pad are required to be randomly generated from a keyspace $\mathcal{K}$, we require 256 bit random keys, i.e. $\mathcal{K}=\{0,1\}^{256}.$ Suppose we randomly select an ...
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How to best mix two arbitrary/random n-bit words? [closed]

Given two arbitrary/random $n$-bit words, how could one best mix them to get one $n$-bit word for general crypto usages? I suppose that one should have an adequate measure of goodness of the mix ...