an asymmetric (e.g. public-key) cryptosystem, based on modular exponentiation with big exponents and modulus. RSA can be used both for signature and encryption.

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2048-bit RSA Decryption

If a message is encoded with 2048 bit RSA. The ciphertext is $M^e mod N$. In some cases, the message is short, $ M \approx 10^{20} $. With a high probability, $M$ can be written as $M = ab$ with $a, b ...
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1answer
19 views

RSA: How effective is this keypair-trash attack

A question that could very well be part of xkcd's "what if?": Let's say Monica made a piece of software that sends all RSA keypairs to a central database after they're not used anymore. Something ...
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1answer
28 views

x509 Certificate Signature

I've got a question about the signature of a CA. As I understand, the CA takes the public key of the client and signs it with his own private key by using "md5WithRSAEncryption" (like explained here: ...
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1answer
37 views

Negative exponents in Shoup's threshold RSA?

I'm trying to implement threshold RSA operations, starting with decryption based on Peeters, R., Nikova, S., & Preneel, B. (2008). Practical RSA Threshold Decryption for Things That Think. ...
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2answers
74 views

Selection of cryptographic functions for OAEP

I can't understand how the "cryptographic functions" are to be selected RSA + OAEP which are used in OAEP. How to choose these "cryptographic functions"(G and H)?
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34 views

Is signing a message just encrypting it with private key? [duplicate]

I have a simple question, When I sign a message (in RSA) does the program encrypt the text with my private key? Because I can decrypt it with my public key. Yes or no. Is signing a message just ...
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0answers
19 views

How to verify pgp digital signature + generic cipher question

When receiving emails, I sometimes see the following: -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA1 I found an integer overflow in PHP, in the conversation of dates to "Julian Day Count" ...
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1answer
70 views

RSA: how does it work and how is it more secure than symmetric systems

Before starting the question, I know that RSA is naturally a key exchange cryptosystem rather than an antilogarithm fully implemented for encrypting and decrypting data since the length of the secret ...
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1answer
43 views

Is it a variant of Strong RSA assumption?

Informally, the hardness of RSA/Strong RSA assumption lies in the hardness of factoring a large composite number $N$ having two large primes as its factors. If RSA modulus $N$ is a prime number, then ...
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26 views

Decrypt Encrypted File on the fly and view to user

I have encrypted files on my Web server. Each file is encrypted with a unique symmetric KEY. All symmetric encryption keys are stored on db with public KEY encryption. On user side; Users are logged ...
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2answers
82 views

How does RSA padding work exactly?

I've read everywhere online and people say plain text RSA is very unsafe. To make it safe you pad it but no examples are shown anywhere on how to do it. It's explained that random data is added to the ...
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32
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10answers
5k views

Now that quantum computers have been out for a while, has RSA been cracked?

D-wave systems has released a commercially viable quantum computer. This means in theory, that all asymmetric encryption algorithms — such as RSA — are now useless due to the speed at which quantum ...
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3answers
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RSA Key generation: How is multiplicative inverse computed?

As per Wikipedia, RSA keygen goes like this: Choose two distinct prime numbers p and q. Compute $n = pq$. Compute $\varphi(n) = (p − 1)(q − 1)$. Choose an integer e such that $1 < e < ...
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1answer
118 views

Find private exponent in RSA

The other answers for this confuse me, I know the principle of d in terms of the equation it has to satisfy. However I'm not sure how I would go about finding the private exponent without trial and ...
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1answer
133 views

Practical Attack on RSA

Currently I am designing an RSA based application, and I am thinking of how long should the key be in order to be secure against attacks. I know that RSA 4096 bit key can be recovered using Sound ...
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5answers
6k views

How big an RSA key is considered secure today?

I think 1024 bit RSA keys were considered secure ~5 years ago, but I assume that's not true anymore. Can 2048 or 4096 keys still be relied upon, or have we gained too much computing power in the ...
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1answer
57 views

Montgomery and Galois fields

I'm a little bit confused about the design of a RSA module in VHDL. My question isn't directly related to hardware design. I've read a lot of publications and I bought also a book. In one publications ...
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0answers
36 views

Two questions on EMSA-PKCS1-v1_5

If I implement EMSA-PKCS1-v1_5 in the following two non-standard ways, what kind of things could go wrong? The padding structure will be referred as (00|01|PS|00|DER(Digest Algo)|Digest), where | is ...
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0answers
23 views

signature table [closed]

one new scheme that is called as RA...rapid authentication scheme which provides immediate verification.this scheme is combination of rsa and condensed rsa definition....ra scheme has 4 algorithms ...
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2answers
77 views

RSA signing security

I'm curious about the security of RSA signing with the same public private key pair when the same message is sent multiple times. It's my understanding that once you generate the hash of the message ...
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0answers
53 views

RSA public key exponent generation confusion

Quote from Wiki: $e$ having a short bit-length and small Hamming weight results in more efficient encryption — most commonly $2^{16} + 1 = 65537$. However, much smaller values of $e$ (such as $3$) ...
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1answer
120 views

Montgomery Algorithm

I'm trying to undestand how it works and how to implement the algo described in this paper. The paper shows a methods to compute a modular multiplication where it is used multiplier with a resolution ...
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1answer
63 views

Is RSA with SHA1 broken?

I am using CryptSignMessage to sign a string/file. Is using RSASha1 insecure? I know Sha1 is broken as a hashing algorithm, but does that also mean that using it for signing with RSA is broken?
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3answers
236 views

Implementing a web app where the server cannot decrypt its own data?

I'm a cryptography novice, but I think that the world needs to move towards an "encrypt everything" mentality as much as possible. As a result, I've been thinking a lot about ways to build a web app ...
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2answers
115 views

Factors of RSA modulus

In the article A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems, the original RSA article, it is mentioned that Miller has shown that n (the modulus) can be factored using any ...
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0answers
26 views

How to find the factors of the modulus? [duplicate]

In the article "A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems", the original RSA article, it is mentioned that Miller has shown that n (the modulus) can be factored using any ...
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1answer
36 views

ASN.1 encoding off RSASSA-PSS default parameters

I am not totally sure the question belongs to crypto and not stackoverflow but nevertheless... The problem is the encoding of the RSASSA-PSS default algorithm identifier parameters in an X509 ...
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3answers
48 views

private keys for multiple devices [closed]

I have an architecture where: a user can have multiple devices (phones) the server needs to broadcast the payload to all devices through the same channel (basically, all devices listen and receive ...
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1answer
69 views

Strength of RSA with OAEP

In our current system we use an encryption solution based on RSA with OAEP padding. Key size is optional but default 2048. What is the general strength of RSA with OAEP? Are there know attacks that ...
3
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3answers
433 views

P = NP and current cryptographic systems

I've recently heard some people claiming that if the fact that P = NP is proven, most (all?) the current cryptographic algorithm considered secure like RSA will be unusable in secure systems. My ...
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1answer
121 views

Timelock puzzle improvment

I came across this question with this answer about a cryptographic timelock-puzzle that needs approximately 30 years to be solved. There is also an explanation with source code for that puzzle ...
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5answers
443 views

What is the SSL private key file format?

I was researching about how to encrypt with RSA. I understood everything but not the format of the private keys. In the phpseclib (RSA in PHP), you can import your private key (private.key format) ...
0
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1answer
114 views

Storing AES encrypted RSA private keys on a server

I'm thinking about creating an encrypted messaging web application where users create RSA key pairs, they store the public key on the server for others to see and also store an AES encrypted private ...
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1answer
68 views

Why are cryptographically secure hashes required for digital signing (RSA or DSA)?

I know that a cryptographically secure hashing algorithm is required for proper message signing (SHA-1, or I think SHA-2 is the current suggested algorithm). However, why does the hashing algorithm ...
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Why hash the message before signing it with RSA?

The diagram below illustrates the process of digitally signing a message with RSA: As diagram shows, the message is first hashed, and the signature is then computed on the hash, rather than on the ...
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1answer
48 views

How exactly to extract information base 10 from a PGP RSA key pair?

I think I understand the mathematics of RSA ok. I'm not so computer savvy though. How, exactly, can I extract $n$, $e$, $d$, $p$ and $q$ from a PGP RSA public key pair? Is there like a converter ...
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1answer
3k views

RSA 4096 bit key benchmark

How can I benchmark RSA operations on my computer? I want to know about 4096-bit long keys on general computers. How many encryptions and decryptions are possible per second? All benchmarks I found ...
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0answers
59 views

RSA - Why should we sign hash rather than raw content? [duplicate]

Apart from obvious performance considerations, is there any mathematical or crypto reasons that imply that we sign a hash rather than a raw content ? I read that it was because the hash must fit in ...
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0answers
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Relations between RSA and DLOG, factoring and DLOG

Definition: (The generalized Diffie-Hellman problem) Let $n=pq$ for two large primes $p,q$. Given $x, x^a, x^b,n$, find $x^{ab}\pmod{n}$. (1) Is there a known reduction from the GDH problem ...
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1answer
40 views

Asymmetric sign in public enviroment

I have RTS game, where all players run game and server just relays messages. Game can generate and store text file on player pc. I want to allow some players to be moderators, so I need to sign or ...
3
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2answers
556 views

How much extra information is in an RSA public key?

I'm trying to calculate the size of an RSA public key in Ruby. I've retrieved the key in PEM format, and once I've decoded the base64 part from the PEM format, I get the size in bytes. What I find is ...
3
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2answers
203 views

Does RSA operate over a Finite Field (Galois Field)?

Is it correct to say that RSA operates over a Finite Field (Galois Field)? In this case GF(p)? I do understant that the modulo in RSA is not itself a prime number, but all the operations ...
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1answer
124 views

Can public key be recovered from chipher text & encrypted private key?

I'd like to implement something like a write-once public/private encrypted shared secret (no better quick description for the lack of terminology knowledge). I guess, i'm trying to implement HSM. The ...
0
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1answer
88 views

Possible to know who is the owner of a message encrypted with RSA public key

Given the scenario in which I want to send 10 messages either to Stalio or Olio. I encrypt these messages with their respective public keys using textbook RSA, before sending the messages to their ...
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42 views

PKCS12 - private key protection [migrated]

I know that PKCS12 private key is protected by a password, but what is actually done with the password ? Does it use PBKDF to derive the key from password ? That would be a problem as if you change ...
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0answers
47 views

Is basic RSA secure? [duplicate]

I'm pretty new to cryptography, had RSA in my math lectures a few years back and decided to try it myself. I've implemented a rather basic version of RSA using a hash from a passphrase to create the ...
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4answers
201 views

How are random numbers for RSA generated? [duplicate]

The RSA public key encryption requires two very large prime numbers as part of its encryption process that serve as secrets. These are typically generated with cryptographically secure random number ...
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2answers
109 views

how to let other people respond to emails only decrypt-able with my private key

First of all I have to say it's a homework question but since I have no one to consult with, I ended up here :) Suppose a case in which you are the manager of a company and all employees encrypt ...
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1answer
68 views

For which RSA moduli, precisely, is $e=d$ for all $e$?

This question shows that there are at least two valid RSA moduli $n$, namely $35$ and $91$, such that for any $e$ coprime to $\lambda(n)$, $$e^2\equiv1\mod\lambda(n)\text.$$ Reading the linked ...