Salt is unique (usually random) data passed into a hash function for password storage to avoid the possible usage of rainbow tables or similar attacks. Salt will not help against dictionary or brute force attacks, as the salt is usually stored together with the hash.

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If one has hash = hash(salt + password) and one knows N pair of hash and salt is it easier to attack the password?

For example: $hash = md5($salt + $password) I know N pairs $hash $salt 60d0c34a37a71b279edaae4ffdcba86d 1 1d79c99d01f51f8e8b4c6505e8f6728e 2 ... Is it possible ...
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RSA-PSS salt size in certificate

In RFC 4055, the signature RSAPSS algorithm has the following ASN 1 parameters: ...