produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length

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7
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2answers
906 views

Practical necessity of semantic security under chosen plain text attack (CPA) in CBC mode

I was not able to understand why we practically need a CPA security in Cipher Block Chaining. (which insist on having a random IV), let say if the encryption is not CPA secure i.e , the adversary can ...
7
votes
1answer
412 views

Easy explanation of “IND-” security notions?

There are many schemes that can advertise themselves with certain security notions, usually IND-CPA or IND-CCA2, for example plain ElGamal has IND-CPA security but doesn't provide IND-CCA security. ...
7
votes
0answers
112 views

Attacks on elliptic-curve based cryptosystems through solving the Decisional Diffie-Hellman Problem with the Weil Pairing

Are there any examples of practical attacks on cryptosystems set over elliptic curves which utilize the easiness of DDH for certain choices of curves $E(\textbf{F}_q)$, and as such their lack of ...
6
votes
1answer
418 views

Message space in security definitions

What is the message space in the following example and how does a message space relate to a security definition? I mean, what difference does it make to such a definition if your message space is ...
5
votes
3answers
412 views

Is there a public key semantically secure cryptosystem for which one can prove in zero knowledge the equivalence of two plaintexts?

If Alice encrypts two messages $a$ and $b$, such that $x=E(a)$, $y=E(b)$. Can Alice prove (without revealing $a$, $b$ or the private key) that $a = b$? Obviously the proof must not be too long and it ...
5
votes
1answer
70 views

Designing Secure Multi-Party Computation Sub-Protocols Based on Homomorphic Encryption

When designing SMPC protocols using secret-sharing, it is a common approach to compose a protocol from several sub-protocols (each proven secure under the formal definition of security w.r.t. ...
4
votes
1answer
251 views

Homomorphic Encryption and Semantic Security using Lattices?

I've been reading Brakerski and Vaikuntanathan's "Efficient Fully Homomorphic Encryption from (Standard) LWE" and I'm still digesting pieces at a time. Under section 1.1, "Re-Linearization: Somewhat ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

Decisional Diffie-Hellman: compute Legendre symbol of $g^{ab}$ from $g^a$ and $g^b$?

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decisional_Diffie%E2%80%93Hellman_assumption: Importantly, the DDH assumption does not hold in the multiplicative group $\mathbb {Z} _{p}^{*}$, where $p$ is ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Proof that IND$-CPA implies IND-CPA?

I've read a few papers recently that used a notion of security called "indistinguishability from random bits/strings" under chosen plaintext attack, also called IND\$-CPA. See e.g. ...
3
votes
2answers
409 views

Can I build a secure tweakable block cipher from a normal one by adding key and tweak?

Let (E,D) be a secure block cipher. Consider the following tweakable block cipher: ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Which categories of cipher are semantically secure under a chosen-plaintext attack?

I am trying to get my head around the circumstances under which a cipher is (or is not) semantically secure under a chosen-plaintext attack. I can't seem to find a good reference explaining this. I ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

Why is “semantically secure” important for cryptosystems?

The first question: what is the exact definition of semantically secure? Basically, a cryptosystem is semantically secure if given the public key and the ciphertext, an adversary cannot learn any ...
3
votes
1answer
184 views

Homemade Randomized RSA

Considering the following encryption scheme where RSA is used to encrypt a plaintext m and then we choose a random r and compute: $$A = r + m^e \bmod N$$ and $$B = r^e \bmod N$$ So the ciphertext is ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Perfect Secrecy -> One Time Semantic Security -> Secure PRG

I think I have some sense of what Perfect Security means, and even Semantic Security, but I am struggling with randomness, so I'm going to ask a question about CSPRG's (Cryptographically Secure PRG's) ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

definition and meaning of semantic security

I'm taking coursera cryptography course. The definition of semantic security is hard to understand. I tried to slightly restate it (the word "efficient" was in the original definition). Do I get it ...
3
votes
1answer
357 views

Constructing secure key exchange protocol

I have $\Pi=(Gen,Enc,Dec)$ and let it be semantically secure public-key encryption scheme. Security parameter is $n$, then the message space of plaintext is always $\lbrace 0, 1 \rbrace^n$. By using ...
3
votes
1answer
559 views

Why is proof-by-reduction needed (for Elgamal proof of security, for example)?

The textbook proof for Elgamal encryption basically reduces to the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption (DDH). Elgamal: $Gen(.): x \xleftarrow{R} \mathbb{Z}_p$; $Enc(m,g^x): r \xleftarrow{R} ...
2
votes
2answers
344 views

Is semantic security important in a hybrid cryptosystem?

RSA doesn't provide semantic security when used unmodified, and neither does the commonly used PKCS#1 v.1.5 padding scheme for encryption. Is this a problem for hybrid cryptosystems at all? My ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Can a shift cipher attain perfect secrecy?

On a practice question for my intro cryptography exam, it asks the following: Assuming that keys are chosen with equal likelihood, the shift cipher provides:    A) computational security ...
2
votes
2answers
485 views

Proving the semantic security of the One Time pad

Currently hearing a lecture on cryptography, and the professor gave us the definition of semantic security, which is roughly the following (formally not quite complete, but you get the idea): ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

hybrid PKE scheme CCA2 insecurity

I'm reading "An Efficient CCA2-Secure Variant of the McEliece Cryptosystem in the standard model" by Rastaghi which states: As we know, in hybrid PKE schemes XOR alone cannot perfectly hide ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Semantic Security and Equal Message Length in the Context of Public Key Cryptography

A lot of definitions for semantic security make use an experiment $\text{Exp}$ which is performed between a challenger $\mathcal{C}$ and an adversary $\mathcal{A}$ that begins as follows: ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Is elliptic curve point multiplication semantically secure?

Is elliptic curve point multiplication semantically secure? I'd like to know if there are some sets of elliptic curve parameters (e.g. NIST curves) that are proved to be semantically secure or that ...
1
vote
1answer
279 views

Semantic Security Active or Passive attacks?

I'm reading A Practical Public Key Cryptosystem Provably Secure against Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack and here define Semantic Security ... Semantic security, dened by Goldwasser and Micali ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

The encryption scheme is secure?

I have a scheme and I don't know that this scheme is semantic security or not. Secret keys $\{s_1,s_2, x_1,x_2\}$ and public parameter $p$ (large prime number). Encryption E(m): $C_1 = s_1m + x_1k ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

Key escrow on indistinguishability games

Does it mean that when PPT attacker is breaking an indistinguishable based (equivalent with semantic security) game with non negligible probability that he is able to infer the secret keys either on ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Does not using padding mean a lack of security?

I've read several texts which say that if the entire plaintext is a multiple of the block-size padding is not required (and not using padding would not mean a loss of security). I generally disagree ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Secure blinding factor switching at malicious server-side (Switching in One Time pad)

Suppose all the values and operations are defined over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_p$ where $p$ is a large prime number. Assume all values are non-zero. Here $(z)^{-1}$ denotes multiplicative inverse ...