All Questions

4
votes
3answers
325 views

Endless PRNG from PRNG with specific stretch?

Every definition of pseudorandom generator that I've seen says it takes n-bit strings and gives poly(n)-bit strings. Is there a proof that if there is such a pseudorandom generator then there is a ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Is the CBC weakness in XML Encryption a new discovery? Are other applications vulnerable?

The RUB in Germany reports that XML encryption is broken. This is essentially the W3C standard for protecting XML documents from prying eyes. Does this mean that an attacker can only see a single ...
8
votes
1answer
3k views

Why is it insecure to use a randomized IV for CBC-MAC instead of an all-zero IV?

A fixed length CBC-MAC uses an all-zero block as the initialization vector. Suppose that we used a randomized IV instead, and sent the IV along with the tag. So if the message $m$ will be $m = b_1 || ...
4
votes
3answers
765 views

public key cryptography and digital signature

I read the following from Understanding Public Key Cryptography on Microsoft TechNet: Using a private key to establish identity shows that the full encryption and decryption operation was ...
11
votes
3answers
4k views

Can one generalize the Diffie-Hellman key exchange to three or more parties?

Does anyone know how to do a Diffie-Hellman or ECDH key exchange with more than two parties? I know how to do a key exchange between 2 parties, but I need to be able to have a key agreement between 3 ...
16
votes
5answers
977 views

Is it feasible to build an index of prime factors?

Would it be possible to break an RSA key, in for example 1 week of time, if the cracker have already spent X number of years building an index of primes by performing every permutation of existing ...
7
votes
1answer
165 views

Is there any general description language for block ciphers?

In page 9 (16 in the PDF) of Final report of European project IST-1999-12324 (NESSIE), it is mentioned that: The NESSIE project is also developing a new generic tool to analyze block ciphers ...
6
votes
1answer
816 views

Why doesn't preimage resistance imply the second preimage resistance?

Let the preimage resistance be defined as »given a hash value $h$, it is hard to find any message $m$ such that $\operatorname{hash}(m)=h$«, and let the second preimage resistance be defined as »given ...
4
votes
4answers
355 views

Is there a secret sharing scheme which allows delegation/re-sharing without reconstructing the original secret?

EDIT: Ilmari Karonen's answer below well not exactly what I want, gives a very good idea of what I am trying to accomplish. Are there any known secret sharing schemes that allow new parties to be ...
15
votes
5answers
2k views

Does RSA work for any message M?

I decided to read the original RSA paper A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystem because of a question I had about RSA (which is not the question I'm about to ask, but ...
6
votes
2answers
419 views

Deniable Encryption from simple primitives

Is there a deniable encryption scheme $M = E(p_1,k_1,p_2,k_2,...,p_n,k_n), p_j = D(M,k_j)$ of $n$ plaintexts $p_1,p_2,...,p_n$ and $n$ keys $k_1,k_2,...,k_n$, such that we can fix $D$ to be a known ...
3
votes
2answers
192 views

Getting the encryption method and key from the encrypted data and the raw data

I have some pairs of plaintext and ciphertext data, from which I need to be able to decrypt the other passwords stored in the database. The password field typically contains something like ...
4
votes
2answers
421 views

How can one break a monoalphbetic substitution chipher at pseudorandom text?

Does anybody know how to break monoalphbetic substitution cipher, if it is applied to some pseudorandom text (for example to some surrogate key filed in a database)? Let us assume that we have only ...
5
votes
5answers
955 views

Is there a hash function with 2048bit output?

Is there a publicly available cryptographic hashing algorithm with 2048 bit output? The standard ones are "only" up to 512 bit (SHA-512, WHIRLPOOL). (2048 bits are 256 bytes, so it would be useful ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

How can I encrypt + authenticate short strings into similar short ciphertexts?

I wish to manipulate short ASCII strings (namely unpredictable domain names) into a form which cryptographically assures authenticity and confidentiality, for use in the local part of email addresses. ...
3
votes
1answer
124 views

uniquely identify a symmetric key

Is there a safe way to uniquely identify a symmetric key? I know with asymmetric keys you typically use a hash of the public key, but I assume that using a hash of a symmetric key would reveal too ...
4
votes
2answers
330 views

An Elliptic curve cryptography implementation which can be terminated

I'd like to have an implementation of elliptic curve cryptography along the lines of secp256k1 which is secure until some information is published after which it is broken. One idea would be to use ...
7
votes
2answers
652 views

Does AES have any fixed-points?

Is there any pair of 128-bit strings M and K such that AES$_K$(M) = M? If yes, how do I go about (efficiently) finding such a pair?
5
votes
1answer
261 views

How can I store confident data with OpenID?

I want to make a system that needs to store some confident user information in a database. I intend on using OpenID for user authentication. I would like encrypt the data in a way that it can only be ...
12
votes
2answers
7k views

AES in ECB mode weakness

In a project that I'm currently working on, we are encrypting some data using AES with ECB mode in a database. Each piece of data being encrypted is very small, no more than 10 characters long. Very ...
7
votes
2answers
433 views

Key Length & Hashing

I need to use a hash function to generate a 128-bit key for a symmetric cipher. The specific cipher is from the eStream portofolio, called Rabbit. I am using the SRP protocol for authentication (a ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

Strength of multiple hash iterations?

Is it correct that increasing the iteration possibly decreases the cipher strength but increases the amount of time it would take to find the original hash values if using brute-force on a given hash? ...
11
votes
1answer
5k views

RIPEMD versus SHA-x, what are the main pros and cons?

RIPEMD is a family of cryptographic hash functions, meaning it competes for roughly the same uses as MD5, SHA-1 & SHA-256 do. The Wikipedia page for RIPEMD seems to have some nice things to say ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

Why has the RSA factoring challenge been withdrawn?

Wikipedia states that RSA challenge has been withdrawn. Does it mean that an efficient factoring algorithm is "just around the corner"? or are there some other reasons? If the challenge was still ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

How well does scrypt perform on different architectures / OSes?

The scrypt algorithm seems to be a prominent feature in the "CPU friendly" Bitcoin clones for the proof-of-labor part. I've heard claims that it's relatively slow on Windows and/or Intel compared to ...
6
votes
2answers
958 views

Encrypt-then-MAC Confidentiality, Integrity and Authenticity

Does Encrypt-then-MAC provide equal confidentiality, integrity and authenticity as other constructs such as EAX? If yes, how do I go about using it? My current understanding is: E = ...
4
votes
1answer
173 views

When is an asymmetric scheme considered broken?

Does the following quote imply that valid encrypted data can be created and decrypted by someone other than the owner of a private key: An asymmetric encryption scheme is considered to be broken ...
7
votes
3answers
299 views

Is there an algorithm or hardware that can sign/verify natural time?

PGP/GPG can used to sign text, others use public key to verify them. So one could say, that these cryptographic algorithms deal with space. Are there any algorithms that can deal with time? E.g. I ...
4
votes
1answer
208 views

How common are SEED certificates outside of Korea? When is support required?

I'm looking at the SEED algorithm and would like to know if this is still in common usage. Can anyone tell me when I would need to implement this standard, either as a client or a server?
6
votes
1answer
2k views

How do other, non-RSA algorithms, compare to the PKCS #1 standard?

Arguably the PKCS suite of standards have a profit-oriented bias as they are promoted by RSA and promote their algorithms over others in the form of RFCs and other means. I'm considering the ...
4
votes
2answers
165 views

Generating non-repeating N-bit IVs, which are indistinguishable from randomness

I'm implementing a protocol which needs a 64-bit IV for every encrypted packet. The cipher in use (AES-GCM, more or less as specified in RFC 4106) does not require that these IVs are random, only ...
4
votes
1answer
171 views

Does anyone have a KAT for 3DES KO-2?

Does any one have, or can refer to a Known-Answer-Test (KAT) for Triple DES Keying Option 2? (Keying Option 2 means $C = DES_{k_1}(DES^{-1}_{k_2}(DES_{k_1}(P)))$ for encryption and $P = ...
13
votes
1answer
910 views

Why choose an authenticated encryption mode instead of a separate MAC?

What are cryptographic reasons to choose an authenticated-encryption mode of operation (such as GCM) over a traditional encryption mode plus an independent MAC, or vice versa? Assume there is no ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

How to calculate the time it'll take to crack RSA or DH?

Sometimes the easiest way to describe security of a type of cryptography is to say that "the time it takes to solve for an x-bit key would be y years". How would one go about doing such a calculation ...
4
votes
3answers
710 views

What is the likely cause the RSA algorithm gives back plain text in this case?

Text book question of Chapter 9 of "Crypto and Network Security" by William Stallings: When using the RSA Algorithm — if a small number of repeated encodings give back the plain text, what is the ...
5
votes
3answers
4k views

Can Pre-Paid Cards be cracked?

Is it possible to deduce the original function that used to generate those prepaid cards number that are used for charging your mobile phone credits? For example: If I've collected about 1000 of ...
2
votes
1answer
155 views

Signature scheme with two private keys, neither derivable from the other

Is there any scheme, ideally one widely used or at least widely available, where you can treat both the signing and verifying keys as secret? Basically, the functionality I'm looking for is this: ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

At the current time, is SHA256 the de facto standard for strong cryptographic hashes?

At the current time, is SHA256 the de facto standard for strong cryptographic hashes? From what I am seeing of more sites utilizing it, I would suppose the answer to this is yes, but would like to ...
6
votes
2answers
535 views

Using a mono-alphabetic substitution cipher with a different language per word

How much harder is it to determine the secret key for a mono-alphabetic substitution cipher, if each word is translated into a different language before the cipher is applied? If somehow computers ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

How exactly would someone crack a private key passphrase? [closed]

Lets say for a PGP/GPG pair with a passphrase.
3
votes
2answers
282 views

If Bob steals Alice's private key, how exactly would he read her encrypted documents?

So Bob grabs Alice's secret key when she isn't looking and her encrypted files, doesn't he need to know her passphrase to read her files? What I am reading is that no he does not need it but as far ...
29
votes
1answer
4k views

What is the “Random Oracle Model” and why is it controversial?

What is the "Random Oracle Model"? Is it an "assumption" akin to the hardness of factoring and discrete log? Or something else? And why do some researchers have a strong distrust of this model?
10
votes
2answers
855 views

Encryption scheme for social-network-like data sharing data via untrusted server?

I am thinking quite a lot lately abut the problem of secure, privacy-preserving social networking. Distributing the network among trusted, preferably self-hosted servers (like Diaspora, GNU Social ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

How does one scale encryption strength upwards from 256-bit?

I have seen many examples of encryption up to about 256-bit. But how does one programmatically scale the logic upwards in a language such as PHP or Java to say 1024-bit or even 4096-bit and higher? ...
4
votes
3answers
258 views

SIM security for two messages

Here SIM means the simulation based security Consider a two message encryption scheme:$$Enc:K \times M \times M \rightarrow C \times C$$ and $Enc(K, m, m')=(K \oplus m, K \oplus m')$, In ...
7
votes
2answers
633 views

Where can I get information on how to implement AES?

I want to write AES from scratch without using the built in libraries of java. I know there are hundreds of AES programs (and websites) out there but I can't seem to find a site that gives me the ...
28
votes
7answers
15k views

Google is using RC4, but isn't RC4 considered unsafe?

Why is Google using RC4 for their HTTPS/SSL? $ openssl s_client -connect www.google.com:443 | grep "Cipher is" New, TLSv1/SSLv3, Cipher is RC4-SHA Isn't RC4 ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Can ECDSA signatures be safely made “deterministic”?

Using the terminology of the ECDSA wikipedia page, ECDSA (and DSA) signatures require a random k value for each signature which ensures that the signature is different each time even if the message ...
8
votes
1answer
296 views

How did the Koblitz/Menezes papers affect the cryptography community?

Two highly-critical papers by Koblitz and Menezes (two well-regarded mathematicians who've contributed to the crypto community) were published years ago: Another Look at “Provable Security” in 2004, ...
27
votes
6answers
3k views

Is there a secure cryptosystem that can be performed mentally?

I, myself, do not plan on getting into a situation where I would be unable to use a computer in order to communicate securely. However, I can think of many practical situations in which mental ...

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