2
votes
1answer
67 views

Is PKCS7 a signature format or a certificate format?

I always though PKCS7 was a signature format. However, on the net I find several references to PKCS7 being a certificate format - for example, this talks about PKCS7 certificate: Extract raw ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

How to select a good scale for letter frequency in a text?

I needed to use a scale in a code to determine which sentence in a file has been encrypted by a single-character key. The scale that i currently used is: +2 for every occurrence of a vowel or a ...
2
votes
1answer
107 views

Reversing a known encryption algorithm (4-byte repeating key XOR)

I've been practicing for an upcoming CTF competition, and I've finally reached the cryptography stage. I'm a complete newbie in this field (my knowledge is essentially that bcrypt is awesome and md5 ...
2
votes
2answers
61 views

Security (CPA?,CCA?) in Authenticated identity-based encryption

When I read authenticated identity-based encryption by Ben Lynn, encryption works to send data from user A to user B where: $$a=e(d_{A},B)$$ $$s=H_{3}(Msg,K)$$ $$C=<s,\gamma \oplus H_{2}(a,s),H_{4(...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

What is the diffrence between Feistel networks and SPN?

I recently read about the concept of Feistel Networks and Substitution Permutation Networks but what is exactly the difference between the two ?
2
votes
1answer
56 views

How do you prove an encryption scheme is IND-CPA or IND-CCA?

I know for proving a scheme is not IND-CPA or not IND-CCA you can construct an Adversary which has an unfair advantage in an experiment/game, but how would you prove a scheme is IND-CPA or IND-CCA?
2
votes
1answer
72 views

SipHash's (non-)collision resistance

I'm very new to cryptography, and I need help understanding the security claims made in Aumasson and Bernstein's paper on the SipHash. In particular, I'm trying to understand the following statement ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

Why is DSA falling out of favor?

Windows abandoned DSA rather than extend it to support > 1024 bits; but otherwise I cannot find a reason why DSA would be less desirable. I see in SSH the disabling it by default with a completely ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

Is it possible to combine two hash functions in such a way that cracking the constructed hash would require cracking the constituent hashes? [duplicate]

Suppose A is some arbitrary hash function, for example BCrypt or MD5. And B be some other arbitrary hash function, maybe SHA256 or SCrypt. Let ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

What would happen to AES if we replaced MixColumns with ShiftColumns?

I have this as a question in an assignment and I guess I don't fully understand the steps. I understand that if we omit MixColumns, then every byte of the ...
2
votes
1answer
188 views

What is the meaning of IND-CCA secure under standard model? [duplicate]

I notice that in many research papers (viz. "Universal hash proofs and a paradigm for adaptive chosen ciphertext secure public-key encryption" by Cramer and Shoup) the authors showed that their ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Do I need to use null bytes and \x80 in hash length extension attack?

Say I want to perform a hash length extension attack. All the tools I have used use \x00 and \x80 to pad hashes (hlextend and hashpump). But is it necessary to use these bytes? Based on my ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

How can I generate cryptographic-quality 1/f noise, aka “pink noise”?

Can anyone suggest how I'd generate cryptographic quality 1/f noise: aka 'pink noise', where the PSD follows 1/f. I'd be happy to derive the pink noise from white noise (e.g. /dev/urandom), but I ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

A confusion on the proof of Yao's theorem (Yao 82)

I'm reading the proof of Yao's theorem on Boaz Barak's lecture, the main part of the proof is the following claim: My question is: How can we say "without loss of generality" here? Since $H^...
2
votes
2answers
122 views

Shannon theorem of perfect secrecy

From the class: Shannon Theorem: For a perfect encryption scheme, the number of keys is at least the size of the message space (number of messages that have a non-zero probability). Proof: ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

What is the most common encoding of messages to polynomials?

How polynomial based encryption schemes such as NTRU encode messages in to polynomials? Is there a generic conversion?
2
votes
1answer
99 views

Is there an asymmetric algorithm that can perform double encryption?

I'm looking for any asymmetric algorithm can perform the serial encryption, by serial I mean double or more encryption with different key(same key size). RSA can not do it since the cipher of the ...
2
votes
2answers
111 views

Implementing RSA with small integers in CUDA

I have found some researches dedicated for speeding-up RSA calculations using CUDA. But I am wondering how they do that, given that the biggest unsigned int that could be declared in CUDA is 64 bit. ...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

Shouldn't a signature using ECDSA be exactly 96 bytes, not 102 or 103?

Attempting to use openssl to create a signature is confusing on several levels: If I'm using it to sign a hash that I've already created (HMAC-SHA-384-192, specifically), a. why must I specify ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

Advantages of HS1-SIV over ChaCha20-Poly1305-SIV?

What advantages does HS1-SIV have over ChaCha20-Poly1305-SIV? I know that both use the ChaCha stream cipher, but I am trying to understand why HS1-Hash is a better MAC. Edit: To hide the Poly1305 ...
2
votes
2answers
149 views

Ciphertext with uneven letter distribution

I have a ciphertext encrypted with an unknown method. It is part of a challenge (personal quest), so I can not post it. The letter statistics is the following: ...
2
votes
2answers
98 views

How can a message encrypted with the public key be decrypted with the private key? [duplicate]

I've been reading about encryption and have a basic understanding of the concept. What I don't understand, however, is how a calculation with one key can result in a number that, through calculation ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

Plaintext and ciphertext block sizes

How can you determine the largest plaintext block size and smallest ciphertext size if you used RSA with $n=59768553302699443$ using an alphabet with $27$ characters?
2
votes
1answer
86 views

Why is CBC-MAC with length appended not secure?

I've just read about CBC-MAC for the authentication of arbitrary length messages. In particular I cannot figure out why appending the message length before computing the MAC yields a non-secure MAC. I'...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

Proven secure scheme under random oracle

Currently I am trying to understand random oracle model in order to make a small presentation about it but I seem to be very confused about it. Since it's an hypothetical model without a real life ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Is the IV value in Davies Meyer construction public?

I am learning the construction of Davies-Meyer to construct a hash function from block ciphers. The definition that I found is $$H_i=E_{m_i}(H_{i-1})\oplus H_{i-1}.$$ where $E_k$ is a block cipher ...
2
votes
1answer
219 views

Lattice based attack on RSA

Let $n=pq$ be the RSA module and at least one of $p,q$ is a weak prime.It is proved that the number of such $1024$bit $n$ is at least $2^{759}$. With lattices we can factor these $n$ in a second (I ...
2
votes
2answers
95 views

What is the purpose of Pseudorandom Function Families (PRFs)?

I'm currently in a course in Cryptography, and was wondering why pseudorandom function families exist at all. If there existed one pseudorandom function f(x), based on its definition, could that not ...
2
votes
1answer
224 views

How is the AddRoundKey operation performed in AES-256?

Can anyone explain to me (or send a link to somewhere) how round keys are added in AES-256? I understand that the round keys is added to the state matrix for each round and how XOR works. But since ...
2
votes
2answers
103 views

RSA and difference between factors

As I understand, for RSA $n = p \cdot q$. For the key to be safe enough from getting factored, $p$ and $q$ have to be far from each other. How far do they have to be? For example, if I have two $1024$-...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

How to perfrom modular division while numerator is lesser than the denominator?

I'm implementing point addition and point doubling of elliptic curve cryptography. The formula that I'm using for slope is Point addition: $S = \frac{(P_y-Q_y)}{(P_x-Q_x)}$ where $P$ and $Q$ are the ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

How secure is Shamir's Secret Sharing for password sharing when attacker has t-1 shares?

I am designing protocol to share a random generated n long password between k parties using Shamir's Secret Sharing. I know that share alone does not reveal much information about the original ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Largest number that could be factored in milli seconds

Considering a home pc/laptop as machine used (Say typical 2.4 GHz, 16GB RAM, 4 core processor) for running any factorization algorithm. What would be the largest number that could be factored into its ...
2
votes
2answers
128 views

Why does the time complexity of RSA encryption and decryption depend on the size of the modulus?

I would think that the time complexity would depend on the exponent, not the number of bits in the modulus. For example, if the exponent were 5, using the "naive" method, we would perform 5 ...
2
votes
1answer
168 views

Help understanding basic Franklin-Reiter related message attack

I am trying to understand this attack at the most basic level. I set up the following basic scenario: Let the public encryption exponent, e = 3. Let p, be some arbitrary but known (to the ...
2
votes
1answer
152 views

Confused about how chosen ciphertext attacks work?

When performing a CCA, the adversary gets the public key. At some point, he will send a message m to the challenger, and the challenger will send back either $E_{pk}(m)$ or $E_{pk}(r)$, where r is ...
2
votes
1answer
140 views

Is it an overkill to add external integrity check to the AES-GCM encoding?

There is a java library for android which implements integrity checking to predefined encrypting mode(which can be found here). Short class description from author page to avoid further questions ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Is it secure to use ciphertext feedback with RC4?

Consider the following modification of RC4 to give some "ciphertext feedback" ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

Diffie-Hellman using a different modulus on both sides

For Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange, the used modulus is the same throughout the process. Is it possible to use 2 different for both sides? For example, $A \gets M^{d_1} \pmod{n_1} $ $B\gets M^{d_2} \...
2
votes
1answer
111 views

Cracking a hash which descends to a single value after repeated hashes

Assume I have a hash function (such as the one below) and a cipher, and I know that if I repeatedly hash any string over and over again, it will eventually descend to one unique value. Is there any ...
2
votes
2answers
49 views

With EC secp256k1 is there a way of transforming a function of the private key to a function of the public key?

A key pair has a private key $D_A$ and a public key $Q_A$. $D_A$ is an integer less than the curve's $n$. Is there any (boolean) function of the private key $f(D_A)$ which can be transformed into a ...
2
votes
1answer
263 views

Finding key of AES in ECB mode

How many plaintext-ciphertext pairs would be needed to guess with probability, say $p=0.5$, the key $k$ of AES under ECB mode? Most of the articles that I found tried attacks on single plaintext-...
2
votes
3answers
108 views

Proving that a node is the only child

Say I have a graph of messages like this: A | B / \ C D By including the parent hash in the message to be hashed I can show that B is a child of A, ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

How to calculate Enc(-m) from Enc(m) in Paillier cryptosystem?

The encryption in Paillier cryptosystem is like this according to Wikipedia: Let $m$ be a message to be encrypted where $m \in \mathbb{Z}_n$ Select random $r$ where $r \in \mathbb{Z}_n^*$ Compute ...
2
votes
1answer
142 views

How to use CRT to compute 4 square roots while decryption in Rabin Cryptosystem

I'm reading Rabin Cryptosystem which requires to compute 4 square roots $r, -r, s,- s$ while decryption of cipher text $c$ such that $$r = (y_p \times p \times m_q + y_q \times q \times m_p) \mod n $$...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

AES/DES question about determine a key

I have a question. If you receive a DES encrypted message for which you would NOT recognize the plaintext if it were decrypted, is there any way to potentially determine the key if all keys are likely?...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Data Switching and Information Leakage

Hypothesis: Let $z,a$ be uniformly random elements of a field $\mathbb{F}_p$ where $p$ is a large prime number. Also, let $(-z)$ be additive inverse of $z$. I have a fixed secret value $x$. I mask ...
2
votes
1answer
247 views

Can a file encrypted with one tool be decrypted with different tool? [closed]

I'm new to cryptography and I'm trying implement a file encryption feature into a Python program but I'm running into a big issue...what is needed for someone else to decrypt the file?! Obviously, I ...
2
votes
1answer
445 views

What is required to decrypt an encrypted file?

At the risk of sounding stupid and being laughed at...I must ask this question. What is required to decrypt an encrypted file? Obviously you need the appropriate key to decrypt, but is any other ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

What is the difference between CPA and IND-CPA?

I am writing a paper and I got comments from the reviewer that I don’t really understand. Is there any difference between a CPA (Chosen Plaintext Attack) and IND-CPA (Indistinguishability under ...

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